Handling of Sources
by U.S. Army
The following manual was "Declassified by authority of the Secretary of the Army ODCSINT # 19, 19 Sep 96" and each page was marked with the following stamps:
"Dissemination and Extraction of Information Controlled by Originator"
"Warning Notice - Intelligence Sources and Methods Involved"
"Not Releasable to Foreign Nationals"
Note that the document contains numerous errors in its format, spelling, and grammar. We have tried to remain faithful to the original but some of the errors may have accidentally been corrected. The information is scanned from documents provided by the US Army under the Freedom of Information Act.
HANDLING OF SOURCES
The purpose of this booklet is to provide the basic information
on handling of sources. This booklet in dedicated to CI concepts
in the handling of sources; obtaining and utilization, location
of the placement of employees, training of employee,
communication with the employees, development of an identity,
scrutiny of employees, reparation of employees. and control of
employees. The term Special Counterintelligence Agent (SA)
refers to all those persons who convey or contribute in to
counteract the collection of information of the multidisciplinary
intelligence of hostile services. This booklet is primarily
directed to those persons involved in the control or execution of
CI operations. Likewise, this booklet has a significant value
for other members of the Armed Forces who function in the
security areas or services and other intelligence departments.
HANDLING OF SOURCES
CHAPTER I. Obtaining and utilization of the employee 1
CHAPTER II. Location of the employee 22
CHAPTER III. Investigation and Initial Contact 40
CHAPTER IV. Assignment of Tasks 57
CHAPTER V. Placement of employees 70
CHAPTER VI. Training of employee 82
CHAPTER VII. Communication with employees 109
CHAPTER VIII. Development of an Identity 128
CHAPTER IX. Scrutiny of Employees 140
CHAPTER X. Separation of employees 150
ATTACHMENT A. Control of Employees 161
CHAPTER I: OBTAINING AND UTILIZATION OF EMPLOYEE
This chapter has as objective to present the procedures that must
be followed on obtaining and utilization of personnel required to
gather information with intelligence value for the government.
Also discussed is the need of:
a. Rely on government sources in places and organizations
that fall in the hands of insurrection elements
b. The types of sources (employees) used in the intelligence
system of the government.
c. Exploitation of the inherent weaknesses to all
d. The mission and analysis of the objective.
e. The procedure relative to obtaining and use of the
a. THE EMPLOYEE: We can define the "employee" as that person who
renders his services in exchange of remuneration or compensation.
Since the insurrection movements could emerge in different zones of
economic, political and geographic influence, the government is not
able to depend only on the information provided voluntarily by
faithful citizens or information obtained involuntarily from
insurgents who have been captured. There must be some incentive to
assure the continuous supply of information to the government.
consequently, it is necessary to disseminate in all, society
segments individuals suppliers of information whose services may be
remunerated. An employee is that person who provides information
of value to the intelligence in exchange of some compensation
whether in money or some other kind. This person could be a
peasant. of the hamlet, a member of the cell of the insurgent
organization, or a propaganda leader.
The suppliers of information must be dispersed in all places
considered important, in all popular organizations, regardless of
their size and in all places where could appear some insurrection
B. TYPES OF EMPLOYEES
The CI agent must use the services of a variety of persons in
order to be able to evaluate all aspects of national life. These
persons represent a diversity of characteristics. Each employee is
an individual with his own personality and he must be treated as
such. The tasks that these employees have to perform are also of
individual nature. There will be tines when the supervisors will
be forced to direct the activities of various employees.
1. The Supervisor: A supervisor is the chief of a network of
employees, organized to perform specific tasks of information
collection. When the government CI agent is not able to supervise
the employees or he does not do it for security reasons, he tries
to find a supervisor whom he trains to deal with this task. Said
supervisor responds before the CI agent and works under his
direction. The degree of orientation that the agent provides to
supervisor shall depend on his competence, training,
trustworthiness, function, personality, etc. On planning
information gathering activities, the agent must use a supervisor
only when it is necessary.
a. Tasks: The supervisor must direct the activities of the
group of employees and provide the direction and control that the
agent would normally provide. Must perform administrative as well
as operational functions. In addition, it is his responsibility to
evaluate the work of the employees in order to test their
motivation, discipline and security measures which they observe in
their operations. He could demand to obtain employees so that then
present them with fictitious histories. The supervisor on
performing these serves as a screen for the CI agent and acts as an
intermediary between him and the employees.
2. The Information Collectors: The information collector is a
trained and remunerated person to carry out tasks related to
gathering of information. Said individual could be asked to
affiliate himself to a syndicate, who attends the meetings and who
reports above all what happens. At the same time, he could be
asked to obtain information from merchants why certain primary need
articles are not available.
He could present himself as a disagreeable individual, who fits
well in the insurgent organization. The information collector is
a person directly linked to intelligence mission. it is bestowed on
him to obtain the requested information and to report on the same.
3. Support Personnel: As support personnel are known those
persons who collaborate with the information collectors. These
persons do not participate directly in information gathering
activities, but without them the information collectors could not
carry out their assignments. The agent uses the support personnel
to carry out security, communication, technical assistance tasks
and an unlimited number of various projects.
a. Security Personnel: Security personnel includes the
intermediary, the vigilant and the investigator. The intermediary
is the connection between the members of an information gathering
organization who do not know each other. He can transmit
information or could deliver documents or other objects. His
principal function consists in watching over the security of
operations. The vigilant is to observe and report an the
activities of other employees, of individuals that could be
considered as employees in the future and other matters of interest
related to intelligence personnel administration. The investigator
conducts discreet investigations about an individual supposed to be
employed as information collector for the government. He could
also investigate specific organizations and persons to provide the
agent information on which to base future operations.
b. Technical Personnel: The technical personnel provides the
support necessary to perform certain missions. They could be
demolition specialists, carpenters, tailors, preparation of
documents or any other specialized branch.
c. Service Personnel: The special service personnel is varied
and versatile. This group includes employees who take the place of
contact personnel, who have exceptional persuasion gifts, personnel
versed in teaching and personnel which procures to find promising
employees. There are also employees, usually a couple, whose
residence offers all the security of the case, in a way that the
agent as well as the information collector could meet there for
training purposes, consultation or training when this is necessary.
The purchasing personnel, which discreetly and in secret obtains
the required equipment to carry out a specific mission, is also
found in this category. The CI agent must direct many and diverse
information gathering activities in order to identify and exploit
the insurgent. In order to perform this mission successfully, must
make use of the services of a variety of employees. The best
results shall depend on the agent's ability to find, employ, train
and evaluate personnel capable to carry out a diversity of tasks.
C. VULNERABILITIES OF THE INSURGENTS: An important aspect of the
whole insurrection movement and a great difficulty for the
implementation of countermeasures is the fact that the subversive
activities and the organization of the insurgents remains hidden in
the initial stages. The appearance of guerrilla or paramilitary
units occurs when the movement already has already acquired
substance. Said units are organized only after a solid base of
direction and support has been established.
1. CHARACTERISTICS: The process of creating a revolutionary base
is characterized by the number of activities that must be carried
a. Personnel recruitment
b. Organization of clandestine cells
c. Infiltration in organizations that gather large masses of persons.
d. Acquisition and storage of supplies.
The subversive elements usually unleash a psychologic offense,
taking advantage of the agitation and propaganda, with the
objective of discrediting the government and to intensify and
canalize the popular discontent.
2. PLANNING: On planning operations, it is highly important to
point out that, even when there is not any activity felt on the
part of the guerrillas, an insurrection movement could be in
gestation. Every countermeasure that concentrates only on the
activities of the guerrillas, without taking into consideration the
secret organization and the great preparation before the violence
explodes, is destined to fail.
The mere elimination of the guerrillas does not alter in any way
the basic organization of the insurgents. If it is to achieve a
victory permanent in nature, the internal defense operations must
be planned before the guerrillas initiate their operations, attack
that contemplates the subversive secret elements as well as its
military arm, once the movement reaches its second phase.
3. UTILIZATION: In order to use the government employees in a
more effective manner in their information gathering task, we must
know how to distinguish the vulnerabilities themselves in the
structure and methods of functioning of said organization, in order
to be able to indicate to employees specific points where they must
concentrate their efforts.
a. The insurgent secret organization justifiably concedes
much importance to security, since it functions clandestinely. An
organization created to provide the maximum degree of security to
personnel that operates in it suffers from certain inherent
deficiencies. In a secret organization divided into department,
there is very little horizontal communication among the cells. All
written communication is transmitted by a labyrinthic system of
intermediaries and third persons. In addition, centralized control
is exercised in the insurgent organization. Even though this
system allows great security, on the other hand it has its
disadvantages. A deserter, for example, could be more or less
certain that there will be no reprisals against him if all other
members of his cell (who are the only ones who know that he was
part of this cell) are eliminated by the government security
forces. This circumstance could be used to persuade insurgent
deserters to provide information to the government.
EXAMPLE: In a rubber plantation in Malaysia a worker was
observed while he was carrying supplies illegally to communist
guerrillas. The police, informed of his activities, allowed him to
continue until they had sufficient information and compromising
evidence. One afternoon they arrested him in a deserted road
presenting him with all the evidence against him.
The worker found himself in a dilemma. He could be imprisoned
for ten years for having helped the terrorists or he could be
executed by the terrorist on finding out that be had cooperated
with the police. Because of secret security measures only five
terrorists knew the worker's name. The police suggested to the
worker that he could resolve his dilemma is he mentioned the names
of the terrorists. That way, said worker gained a reward, at the
same time freeing himself from the threat of retaliation.
b. If the government succeeds to convince an insurgent
organization that it has been infiltrated, the organization
naturally increases its security measures. The more strict the
security measures may be, the lass are the probabilities that said
organization would be concerned in secret activities against the
c. The secret insurgent organization usually places the new
elements in positions where they to no have access to valuable
information. only after many severe tests the member succeeds to
receive a position of responsibility. The government, however,
could obviate these security methods.
d. In an effort to find a person to infiltrate the Huk
organization, the Philippine military command secretly came in
contact with the parents of various Huk commanders until it found
the cousin of a commander who stated that he was willing to
cooperate. After some months of special training, the cousin was
sent where his relative Huk was. As relative he had access to his
cousin, but in order to justify his joining the ranks of the Huks,
the Philippine army burned his home, imprisoned his brother and
evacuated his parents. The government, at that time, agreed to pay
all damages and discomfort that had been caused. in view of the
fact that he had obvious reasons to dislike the government, the
cousin was accepted without any problem, in the Huk organization,..
assigning him the post of tax collector of the Hacienda National
Commission (the supplying secret arm of the organization).
e. In order to allow this "infiltrator" to advance within the
Huk organization, the government helped him to collect medicines,
munitions and weapons. For some months the Huks received
government supplies through the "infiltrator".
Through a complex system of signals and contacts, this
government employee transmitted valuable information to security
forces about the most important collaborators and members of the
Huk Hacienda National Commission.
f. The communication methods used by the insurgent secret
elements also break down, which provide the opportunity for
infiltration by government employees. In the initial stages,
almost all insurrection activity originates among the population.
The insurgents primarily depend on messengers and hidden secret
places with the anticipation of receiving and transmitting
messages. When they are discovered by the government security
forces, as a rule they are not immediately captured, but they keep
them under surveillance in order to be able to identify the other
contacts. By means of this surveillance, the government security
forces could come to know the principal insurgent messengers, who
could be persuaded to work as government employees.
g. During the initial phases, the insurgents are feverishly
busy to form facade organizations and to infiltrate in institutions
composed of large masses of persons. We already have seen that a
relatively small number of individuals could succeed in controlling
an organization by means of infiltration and fixed elections. The
government could easily find out of the insurgent activity in these
organizations, through the distribution of its employees in all
organizations that it suspects to be of interest to insurgent
groups. Among the principal organizations of this type one could
mention the political parties, the syndicates and youth and student
groups. The operating method of the insurgents could be noticed by
the government employees, since the tactics follow a pattern that
is continuously repeated.
h. The government must, much before, to watch the members of
the communist party in the locality, who devote themselves to
selecting persons for training outside the country in subversive
and insurgent tactics. When it succeeds to identify the selected
individuals, must try to induce them to work for the government
without abandoning the insurgent organization. Likewise it must
try, much earlier, to infiltrate the insurgent organization placing
government employees in positions where they could be recruited by
i. Since the insurgent organization is weak and vulnerable in
the first phase, obtaining precise and timely information is of
great importance for the insurgents. During this phase all efforts
are concentrated to subversion of individuals and organizations, to
establishment of operation bases and to consolidation of their
position. The success in the formation or subversion of
organizations is directly related with the ability of the insurgent
to gather information. The insurgents depend almost totally on the
population to obtain information. Said information provided to the
insurgents could come to the knowledge of government employees.
When there are groups of people dedicated to providing information
to the insurgents, the government could simple place its employees
among said groups.
j. During the insurrection movement in Malaysia, for
example, the English depended an certain villagers to provide
information to local authorities. They had to find a way to
protect said persons against the threat of terrorism of the
insurgent elements. in one case, the police visited each house in
a village, delivering to inhabitants a page of paper on which they
should write, without putting their names, any information relative
to activities of the insurgents in the village. The following day
the police returned with an sealed urn and proceeded to collect all
the papers, whether they were blank or otherwise. Since each house
in the village had been visited, the insurgents could not determine
who were the government employees.
k. The insurgents depend on the population not only to
receive information, but also as a source of supply of personnel
and provisions. The importance of this support increases at the
rate the reach and magnitude of the that the operations of the
insurgents increase. The insurgents need the population for the
expansion and replacement of their military and paramilitary
forces, for the establishment and operation of information
supplying networks and early warning service and the construction
of base and training camp areas. The population represents the
principal source of food, medicines and construction material.
On the other hand, the population provides to the insurgent the
necessary means of concealment, allowing him to mingle with the
population in order to avoid being discovered by the government.
Since the insurgent depends so much on the support of the people of
the locality, the government CI agent could take advantage of this
situation using personnel coming from the locality.
l. The principal objective of the insurgents in the second
phase consists in continuously increasing the guerrilla force.
This could only be achieved by intensification of the recruitment
program of the insurgent elements. The guerrilla command must
increase its forces until it reaches the size of a regular army.
This exigency, nevertheless, conflicts with the normal practice of
observing extreme care in testing the trustworthiness of every
guerrilla recruit. it is impossible to achieve a rapid increase of
the forces and to conserve at the same time high security standards
in the process. Consequently, the insurgent military organization
finds itself exposed to infiltration and penetration by government
m. The manual labor required for the construction work in the
base area exceeds, as a rule, the capacity of the insurgent forces.
The insurgents rely on civilian manual labor, which could be
obtained voluntarily or involuntarily. Therefore, a great number
of persons who live in the locality will have knowledge of the
location of said classes of operation. The CI agent must try to
obtain this information from these persons. some will talk
voluntarily, while others will have to be persuaded.
n. Regardless what its motivation may be, however, there is
a condition which must be guaranteed before any person agrees to be
employed by the government in a zone dominated by insurgent
elements. The fact of being government employee must not imply
some compromise, and having done so, must protect the individual as
well as his family against reprisals by the insurgents. This need
for secrecy involves carrying out covert activities such as the
proliferation and operation of information-gathering networks by
the government. However,, open methods could be employed for
information gathering to take advantage of the vulnerability
previously pointed out in the organization of the insurgents. The
"anonymous report" system, used by the English in Malaysia, is an
example of information gathering in an open manner, through which
the identity of the source is protected.
o. The insurgents will be forced to come into contact with
certain persons in the locality,, such as merchants and suppliers,
in order to obtain provisions and other articles. When they are
persuaded to work for the government, said merchants could help
identify the individuals of the connection used by the insurgents
in these operations. After the surveillance of said individuals in
order to discover the identity of other key elements of the
insurrection and at the same time find their bases of operation.
The information relative to the purchases made by the insurgents
could also be used by the experts in intelligence analysis to
evaluate the troops, the need for essential supplies and the
operations that the insurgents could attempt.
p. It would be impossible to handle all these possible
deficiencies or vulnerabilities that an insurgent organization is
suffering from. For that reason, we have been limited in making
observations in place of categoric affirmations. Even when the
insurrection movement in its initial stage is clandestine and
apparently intangible, it could be discovered and destroyed through
the timely and effective use of personnel entrusted of supplying
information. The insurrection is a bad one and must not be
tolerated. The secret organization could be identified and
exploited. However, the CI agent must know how and where to look
to find the focus of insurrection and for that must possess the
necessary information. In addition must know the characteristic
weaknesses of the insurgent organization and how to proceed to..
D. MISSION AND TARGET ANALYSIS:
1. Before talking about obtaining and using government
employees, we see the many factors which the CI agent must consider
before using persons for a specific mission. WE said that he ought
to rely on information gathering individuals before any indications
of the insurrection movement appear. We also mentioned that as
soon as the movement begins, the CI agent must select the targets
which must be investigated by the government employees, in order to
allow for easy and timely gathering of essential information. Then the
missions could vary from the gathering of information in general
until the infiltration of the staff of the insurgents, the secret
supplying system or calls of the insurgents.
The CI agent must study each mission and analyze each target
before proceeding to select the employees before the mission. The
steps which the CI agent should take upon receiving an order from
his superiors to collect information are:
a. Analyze the mission.
1) Analyze the requirements
2) Analyze the target
3) Develop plans
4) Select the employees
5) Execute the plan.
2. ANALYZE THE REQUIREMENTS:
Just as this diagram indicates, the CI agent first must analyze
the information requirements. He must ask himself, "What
information is wanted?" He must study the directive to make certain
that understands it entirely. Then he must reduce the order in the
most simple form and select specific targets that have to be
investigated. He must also perform an exhaustive investigation to
obtain all pertinent information and experience previously acquired
on the subject. This way, will acquire general knowledge which
will allow him to prepare a solid, logic and concise plan. All
planning will have as basis the specific information that he asked
for about the specific target.
3. ANALYZE THE TARGET:
We are now going to analyze the target. The type of target
selected depends, frequently, on the stage of the insurrection
movement. Said target could be in a rural or urban zone, could
deal with commercial or political matters or it could imply
infiltration or surveillance. Where an insurrection movement
exists there will always be a multiplicity of circumstance that
could be exploited to obtain information.
1) We can define the target analysis as the detailed
investigation of the target and the zone of the same in order to
find any condition that could impede or facilitate the government
Is mission. The analysis of the target could also be described as
the process of collecting, comparing and evaluating information
with respect to a target in order to be able to prepare plans for
a specific mission.
2) After gathering and arranging all the pertinent
information, the evaluation of the same follows. In this aspect,
the analysis of the target is of primary importance in order to
find the most appropriate way to exploit it. Through this process
secondary targets are going to be found and identified. The
priority of the principal targets is determined at the same time.
4. PLAN PREPARATION
a. once a target is identified, must proceed to prepare an
operation plan. The CI agent must consider the method of operation
that is necessary to carry out the mission, if it is necessary or
not to look for a person with specific abilities, how and when to
assign specific tasks to the employee, the identity that said
employee will have to adapt, the nature of support that he will
have to offer, etc.
b. The factors considered in the selection of an employee
will be summarized in this chapter and explained in detail in
subsequent chapters. In this aspect, the exigencies of the
mission, the place where the activities are going to be carried out
and the requirements which the person who is going to carry out the
mission should have, must be considered. Failing to analyze
carefully the potential employee, getting to know his history,
access and motivation could result in failure of the entire
5. PLAN EXECUTION:
Finally, a decision must be made in regards to the execution of the
plan. The experience of the CI agent, the ability of the
individuals who participate in the operation, the availability of
essential support articles for the successful execution of the
plan, and above all, the time available shall determine how and
when the plan will be placed in operation.
E. OBTAINING AND USE OF THE EMPLOYEE SEQUENCE:
1. At this time perhaps there is some curiosity about the
subject related to obtaining, training and use of employees. It
would be best to ask: Who are these persons employed by the
government to collect information? What are these persons? Where
could be found? How are they trained to carry out their tasks?
How can their services be utilized for maximum benefit? What
salaries they must be paid? What is the fate of these individuals
when the government does not need them?
2. We hope to be able to answer all these questions in this
manual. We shall also explain procedures that have been used and
are presently used in other countries to intelligence to support
3. Obtaining and using employees represents a cyclical chain
of events that include the following general procedures:
a. Locate the potential employee
b. Initial investigation of the employee's history.
c. Contact and negotiation.
d. Assignment of tasks.
e. Training of the employee
f. Development of an identity.
g. Scrutiny of the employee.
h. Termination of employment.
4. We shall explain these procedures step by step in the
following chapters. We shall also study the methods used to place
the employee at the target zone, provide protection to the
individual and to the call, establish secure communication between
the CI agent and the employee, and to keep personnel records.
5. Each step in the sequence of obtaining and use of the
employee does not suddenly determine to begin the next step. The
planning, although it does not appear in the previous list, is a
continuous task that begins the moment the CI agent receives the
order to obtain information and ends after the employee has been
separated from government service. Said planning must be complete
and exact, it must also be flexible. Must embrace, in a general
way, all aspects of a project and a specific analysis of each
phase. Must take into consideration the characteristics of the
target zone, as well as the personality, history and competence of
each employee. The effective gather of information requires a
detailed planning. If the CI agent does not prepare complete and
continuous plans will often fail in his attempt to obtain the
6. LOCATING THE POTENTIAL EMPLOYEE:
a. The CI agent must plan and initiate an early and
continuous search for potential employees who have the enthusiasm
and meet the necessary aptitudes to obtain the information that the
government wants. Must know where to find the different types of
employees that could be needed. The ability to find at any time
potential information collectors is indispensable for the
successful outcome of intelligence.
b. Before the infiltration of insurgent elements in the
community becomes obvious, they must procure the services of
individuals who are in a position or who could be placed in a
position that allows them to obtain essential information.
Networks of government employees must be established in the rural
as well as in the urban zone. Said employees must be dispersed in
antigovernment organizations, in commercial centers and in any
place where there is suspicion that insurrection outbreaks could
c. The CI agent must be prepared to use said individuals in
obtaining specific information in specific zones when incidents of
some insurrection emerge. The organizations that have been
infiltrated, the villages from which they obtain farm products and
the groups of discontented people represent places of interest for
the insurgent elements.
d. The CI agent must use the services of all employees
available to exploit to maximum every vulnerability of the
insurgent organization. Must infiltrate secretly the organization
of the insurgents, get into the structure bf the same, prepare a
list of the members, determine their spheres of influence and
exploit its communication system. He must be constantly in search
of potential employees in the zones and organizations where he
could obtain valuable information. The individual employees must
have access to information wanted and to be sufficiently motivated
to carry out the mission.
e. Having access carries with it the ability of the employee
to place himself in a position that allows him to obtain specific
information without being discovered by the insurgents. This
implies the surreptitious or accepted presence of the government
employee in the same place where the information is. Said employee
must have the means to reach the organization or target zone and to
remain there without anyone finds out that he is searching for
f. When we speak of motivation, we refer to incentive or
enthusiasm which stimulates the employee to work for the
government. There are many types of motivation, some better than
others, from the CI agent's point of view. In accordance with the
sentiments that motivate him, an employee could be trustworthy to
his government or become a traitor. What ever the employee's
motivation may be it serves to indicate whether he will be faithful
and worthy of trust, the CI agent must analyze this factor very
7. INITIAL INVESTIGATION OF THE EMPLOYEE'S HISTORY:
a. Every potential employee must be subject of investigation
before his services are requested. The CI agent must determine if
he is dealing with a person to whom he can confide, the reasons
that he could have to work for the government and if he meets the
aptitude to apply himself to secret activities for the purpose of
collecting information. The first investigation is carried out
before employing the individual and it is repeated while he remains
employed with the government. It is an investigation similar to
that in which persons are submitted before allowing them access to
confidential information. The former as well as the subsequent
investigations should be carried out with discretion, without
arising any suspicion in the individual who is being investigated.
b. The initial investigation begins after having discovered
an individual who is deemed that he could help the government to
obtain information. The investigating agent must
find out all the information about the individual that would rule
him out; that is to say, disloyalty, emotional instability
indications, being employed with another intelligence agency,, etc.
The investigation must be tedious, in order to allow to ask for
data about the courage, weaknesses, personality, ideology,
religious beliefs, economic situation, political affiliation,
family ties, education, professional training and military history
of the potential employee. And for which it is even more
important, said initial investigation must contribute to determine
the potential employees motivation to establish if he would be
compatible in his status as government employee.
8. CONTACT AND NEGOTIATION:
a. In this stage, the CI agent tries to persuade the
potential employee to agree to work for the government. This could
be carried out in a day, but in all probability could take weeks or
even months. The CI agent must cultivate the friendship of the
potential employee, trying to hide the reason of his interest in
him. He must study the individual and suggest to him discreetly at
the most opportune moment to accept to work for the government.
These actions end when the duly trained and motivated person , that
could be controlled, accepts to work for the government.
b. Appropriate security measures must be taken in the entire
process of dealing with the potential employee. The degree of
control must be such that allows to achieve the objective without
lessening the security measures. When it becomes evident that this
would not succeed, then the actions must be suspended.
c. It is necessary to prepare a careful planning and a
careful initial investigation before approaching the potential
employee. This process implies, on the part of the CI agent, a
series of steps that allow to have the potential employee under
constant surveillance. We shall deal with this subject in more
detail in a subsequent chapter.
9. TASKS ASSIGNMENT:
a. The CI agent must plan carefully every aspect of the task
that he is going to assign to the employee. Must consider the
employee I& ability in relation to the intelligence mission. He
must be totally familiar with the different aspects of the zone of
the objective, in order to be able to provide to employee up to
date data related to the situation, the conditions and the
environment in which he will have to work. The CI agent must also
develop and provide to employee the necessary documentation,
clothing, equipment and other articles which he will need to carry
out his mission. The task assignment must be planned and the
employee must be given detailed and specific instructions in
regards to the mission to be carried out and how it would be
b. The CI agent must also ascertain that appropriate security
measures are adopted in selecting and assigning tasks to an
The existence of convenient security measures increases the
propability of a happy conclusion of the mission and guarantees
that in case of disloyalty or capture, the employee will not be in
condition to reveal but a limited amount of information. Must seek
at all cost maximum protection at the intelligence effort of the
10. EMPLOYEE TRAINING:
a. The purpose of training consists in assuring that the
employee has the necessary knowledge and training to perform his
functions successfully. For greater security, the employee must be
trained only in those specific aspects of the tasks that will be
assigned to him. At the rate he is assigned new tasks, he would
also be given the required training. The training of the employees
must be polished and continuous.
b. There are three factors that determine the content and the
range of training provided to the employee. Said factors are: The
nature of the mission, the ability and training of the employee and
the operational situation. The nature of the mission, as a rule,
indicates the type of training to be provided to the employee; the
competence and experience of the employee with influence in his
ability to assimilate data and acquire new skills, whereas the
operational situation shall determine the training environment.
1) For example, the mission could demand the employee to
determine if the opposition in an organization that brings together
a large number of people obeys to subversive influences, to
determine the type and amount of consumption articles do not reach
their original destination. The employee's history could influence
in the way he reacts in respect to training and lack of specific
abilities. The operational situation could determine if the
employee will be available to receive training, likewise the
attitude of the people in the training area, and the possibility
that there nay be infiltration of insurgent elements in said area.
11. DEVELOPMENT OF AN IDENTITY:
a. We are going to see now, briefly, the manner of selecting
an identity for the employee. Once the potential employee agrees
to work for the government, the CI agent must create an identity
and train him in its use.
The identity of an employee could agree with his real history,
concealing only what refers to his activities of information collector. Or could conceal not only his activities, but also everything related to his real life. His identity could serve to justify the reason for which he works and lives in a specific place or could serve to explain his actions when they may
have been devoted to the task of obtaining information.
b. There is an unlimited number of identities that could be
chosen. Before selecting an identity for an employee, the CI agent
must analyze the mission, consider the history, personality and
intelligence of the employee and to study the environment where the
operation would have to be carried out. The employee must
understand why he has been given a specific identity. He must also
study and exercise the use of the same in a way that his reaction
may be immediate and correct in any circumstances.
12. EMPLOYEE RECRUITMENT:
a. An employee's scrutiny begins from the moment the CI agent
approaches him to induce him to work for the government and ends
when he is separated from government service. The employee must
submit to testing to determine the veracity of his declaration
regarding his history, his sense of responsibility and emotional
ability. This way could be determined if the insurgent movement
enjoys the employee's sympathy or if he has been employed by them,
the degree of control that the CI agent must exercise on the
employee's activities and the accuracy of the reports presented by
him. The frequency with which the employee is subjected to testing
will be a competence matter of the CI agent. The CI agent must
evaluate continuously the information and activities of the
employee. He must compare them with known data and with the
activities of other employees. This way, the CI agent will be able
to discover discrepancies indicative of dishonesty or control
b. You will learn that there are many ways to test an
employee. A complete report by the employee after having carried
out the assigned mission is always necessary. The CI agent must be
prepared for the presentation of this report with the same polish
and care observed in the planning and assignment of the task.
Must listen attentively, observe all actions of the employee
when he makes his report and to be alert to discover any
discrepancy that may arise. The scrutiny of the employee must be
scrupulous and continuous during the entire period that the
employee remains in government service. This way, the CI agent
could maintain the necessary control and the degree of security
indispensable in these operations.
13. EMPLOYEE TERMINATION:
a. The employee's separation must be considered before the
process of requesting the collaboration of the same. On
agreeing the individual to work for the government, the CI agent
must already have prepared a plan that contemplates the moment in
which the services of said individual may not be needed. He must
also be prepared to consider all conditions that the employee could
propose in that respect. The CI agent must come to an agreement
with the employee on any subject that is within the range of his
b. The CI agent must also consider the manner of releasing an
employee who turns out to be disloyal or incompetent. There are
many options that refer to dismissal of employees. All dismissals
must be considered in relation with the mission, the employee's
past performance, his present efficiency, etc. . The possibility of
using to advantage the services of said employee in the future must
also be considered. The CI agent, as you will learn, must prepare
complete and detailed reports immediately after the employee
renders his report following his separation from government
A. In this chapter we have summarily considered some procedures
used in obtaining and the use of persons to government service
dedicated to secret activities of information gathering. There are
many other sources of information and the information that could be
obtained openly is considerable. Nevertheless, there is certain
information which could only be obtained by secret means. If the
government is to be fully informed about insurrection indications
and to be prepared to exploit the vulnerabilities inherent to
insurgent organization, it is necessary to undertake activities of
broad projections, employing for that the services of many
B. Must keep in mind that every insurrection movement suffers
from deficiencies in respect to insurgent organization itself and
the way in which it usually carries out its operations. The agent
must gather as much information as he can about the organization,
the communication system, the organizations subject to infiltration
and the personnel recruitment tactics used by the insurgents.
Then, he must arrange and study this information through analysis
of the mission and the targets. Finally, he must prepare a plan
and choose the employees to exploit specific targets. For the
selection of the appropriate employees without disrespect to
security, the CI agent must follow the procedure related to
obtaining and use of employees, namely:
1. Locate the potential employee
2. Initial investigation of the employee's history
3. Contact and negotiation.
4. Task assignment
5. Employee training
6. Development of an identity.
7. Scrutiny of the employee
8. Termination of the employee.
C. The CI agent must plan carefully every phase of these
activities. He must consider his own potentials and those of the
insurgents, the possible courses of action that could be adopted by
him as well as by the insurgents and must determine what are the
most lucrative objectives.
D. One a decision is taken, the CI agent must prepare detailed
plans, try to meet persons suitable for the work to be carried out,
carefully investigate the history of said persons,, and to
cultivate their friendship for the purpose of persuading them to
agree to work for the government. Before assigning these tasks to
some employee,, the CI agent must evaluate the competence of said
employee and to analyze each aspect of the mission and of the
objective. Then he must train the employee correctly, providing
him with all the instructions and information necessary to allow
him to carry out the assigned tasks.
E. The CI agent must be certain of the employee's honesty in
order to being deceived or place himself also at the service of the
insurgents. For that reason, the employee must be constantly
subject to testing. Must develop plans for when the time comes to
get rid of the employee's services much before becoming interested
to work for the government. The CI agent must constantly exercise
great care in carrying out successfully information gathering
activities through systematic planning and appropriate use of a
large number of people.
CHAPTER II: LOCATING THE EMPLOYEE
The intelligence targets must be selected and investigated by
the CI agent at the beginning of an insurrection or preferably
before the beginning of the same. The agent must be constantly in
search of individuals who domicile in the same center or zone of
the insurrection, or who, could with time succeed to approach
directly or indirectly in a continuous manner the place that is
subject of the investigation. The agent must also know how to
determine if an individual has the necessary qualifications to be
an information collector. He must exercise the proper control on
the employee from the moment he asks him to work for the government
until his separation from his employment or use. One of the most
important factors to be able to exercise the proper control on an
employee is the reason that induced him to work for the government.
a. REQUIREMENTS WHICH THE EMPLOYEE MUST MEET:
1. Among the factors to be considered on looking for a person
for the intelligence service could refer to patent manifestations
of his character, the manner in which he could serve the interests
of the government and the manner he develops in his environment.
a. The two most important qualities that a potential employee
1) To be in or near the target zone.
2) To have access.
b. Being in or near the target zone refers to the physical
location of the employee with respect to the target or objective.
The employee must inside or be able to enter in this zone to
perform productive work. An individual who happens to be a native
of the geographic zone where the target may be has the advantage of
being familiar with the region and its inhabitants.
c. Having access refers to the ability of the employee to be
able to obtain specific information desired by the government.
This is a highly important factor on considering the selection of
an employee. The rest of the desirable qualities are not
important. Whoever has access or the possibility of gaining access
to required information is absolutely indispensable.
d. The ideal, of course, would be an employee who is in the
same zone with the target. Gathering information under this
circumstances involves a minimum of effort and risk increasing that
way the security of the employee as well as of the operation. The
high the position which the employee occupies in the organization
subject to infiltration,, that greater is the possibility of
obtaining the information. But, regardless of what the position of
the employee nay be, the importance is that he more closer the
possible to the target.
e. At times it is impossible to recruit an individual within
the same zone of the target in dealing with a zone with excellent
security and custody measures by competent personnel. In this case
may be necessary to select a person from outside the target zone.
Perhaps the organization that is desired to be infiltrated carried
out commercial transactions with commercial companies who
periodically send representatives in that area. In this case, it
would be wise to try to obtain the services of an individual who
has to visit this area frequently. Even though he would have
limited access to information, it would be much better than no
information at all. It is possible, at times, to recruit a person
from outside the target area and then place him in it.
f. In certain situations, even the slightest penetration in
the target area is impossible. In this case, the CI agent could
use the services of a person who lives near the zone, who in his
turn would obtain information through a close surveillance of the
objective and pump some information from the individuals working in
g. Another factor that must be considered that refers to
accessibility is the desire to penetrate the target zone in the
most highest echelons. Normally, it would preferable to recruit
one of the organization leaders for penetration purposes instead of
being concerned with ordinary members. In dealing with a
subversive organization, however, this is not always possible since
the members are carefully selected and mistrust one another.
It is difficult to become a member of an organization of this
kind, where always investigate the history of their potential
members. In addition the trustworthiness of the members is
subjected to continuous tests, which often include interrogations
and surveillance by the security elements.
h. A high level official in a subversive organization would
probably have access to valuable information, being responsible for
the execution of the organization rules. Nevertheless, if the
services of said individual cannot be obtained, an employee who has
the possibility of becoming a high level official in a short period
of time could be selected. Another possibility would be to find an
employee who may provides the necessary information that would
allow the CI agent come in direct contact with a member of the
organization willing to collaborate with the government.
i. We said that being close or inside the target zone
and having access to valuable information are the two most
important requirements that an individual, whose services have been
solicited, must have. The services of an individual without these
requirements lack in value. We are now going to mention some other
qualities which are desirable. We shall discuss those positive
qualities that all employees must have, as well as those necessary
to carry out special tasks which demand special knowledge.
j. Try to think of all the requirements that would be
demanded from an employee who has to carry out secret information
gathering missions. Consider first the general characteristics
that you would wish all the employees to have, so that then to
examine those that would be needed in very special situations.
B. QUALITIES TO BE CONSIDERED :
1. INTELLIGENCE: The employee must have at least average
intelligence, good judgement and common sense. He must have a good
retaining memory, in a way that he only needs to take few notes in
order to be able to present a truthful and precise report. The
requirements in regards to intellectual ability in question, vary
considerably according to the nature of the mission that has to be
carried out. The intelligence is always a factor of supreme
importance in the ability of the employee to be able to absorb
2. EDUCATION: This includes academic education and all types
of training as well as military education and at work. For
example, a person who does not know how to read often finds himself
at a tremendous disadvantage. As a rule, better results would be
obtained if the employee has received training related with the
subject about which he would have to report. If the employee, for
example, must present a report on a political situation, it is
necessary to be verses in political matters. The employee's
ability to understand advanced specialized matters depends, in
great part, on his academic preparation.
3. TECHNICAL ABILITY: There are an unlimited number of
special abilities that would be needed to help the individual in
carrying out the assigned tasks. Said abilities could vary from
the. ability to drive specific types of vehicles and make certain
apparatus function, being an electronics expert.
4. SOCIAL POSITION: Here we refer to the position that the
individual occupies within the social structure of his country.
This condition is determined from a series of factors, such as
birth, education, economic status, place of residence, religion,
nationality, manners, marital status, employment and the
aspirations of the individual. Often it happens that the
individual does not know his true social position. The CI agent
must determine this comparing the history of the potential
employee, his appearance, his apparent education and manners with
the known social conditions of the community in which he lives. The social
condition in very rare occasions could change without considerable
effort, in a way that it is a f actor that must be considered on
evaluation the ability of the potential employee to be able to
adopt to a specific environment. This is particularly true when
the employee will be asked to penetrate in an objective area.
5. PHYSICAL CONDITION: It is important to know if the
potential employee suffers from some illness or affliction that
could impede him from carrying out his tasks. It is understood
that the employee will have to work regularly, to obtain and
provide information about the indicated target, at previously
agreed times and meetings. Working full time seeking information
about any objective would be a highly difficult task for any
employee who may have a physical impediment.
6. SEX: The CI agent must not discard the possibility of
employing women. Women should be employed in some situations,
while in others, they could be used with greater effectiveness than
men. Remember that women are, as a rule, more emotional than men,
but there no difference in their intelligence. Whatever success
the employee may have will depend on the individual. The decision
to employ a woman would be subject, of course, of many factors.
7. AGE: Worthy employees of great trust are mature
individuals, objective and emotionally stable, who are not letting
their own personalities influence their observation abilities.
Immature and emotionally unstable persons, worrying about their own
problems, as a rule, are persons on your you cannot confide. The
children often are very observant and they can provide precise
information about things that they have seen and heard, in they are
questioned in a proper manner. However, it is indispensable that
said individual be trustworthy, honest and sincere in his relations
with the CI agent.
9. RELIGION: The religious beliefs of the potential employee
could, at times, be a factor of high consideration in the selection
of the individual. A person could have certain convictions or
beliefs that would impede him from performing specific tasks.
C. This list of the qualifications that a potential employee
most have does not include, without any question, all the positive
qualifications. In order to determine the desired requirements,
the CI agent must consider the local environment, the customs, the
needs and the economic and social aspirations of the zone.
The requirements that the candidates to be employed should meet
must be sufficiently flexible, in a way that they could agree with
the mission for which the individual may be employed. Rarely we
find a person who meets all the qualifications that we consider
desirable. Therefore, the CI agent must evaluate the potential
employee bearing in mind the positive qualities and to proceed from
here in the selection of the most qualified individual. Some
qualities are indispensable, while others could be overlooked
always and when the individual shows to have the aptitude to be
trained. For example, almost any technical ability that an
employee must have could be acquired after he has been employed.
D. EMPLOYEE MOTIVATION:
1. We will go an now to discuss some of the f actors that are
usually considered in the selection of persons who have to work in
intelligence operations. We shall limit the discussion to factors
which are related to the employee, such as his personality and the
environment where he lives. We particularly shall consider his
motivations, that is to say,, this inner impulse that determines
his way of thinking, feeling and acting, and which reveals the form
in which the CI agent could exercise influence an said employee.
2. There is a diversity of motives that induce individuals to
accept work in intelligence activities of the government. We shall
analyze in detail some of the most common reasons, in order then to
consider how said motives could be observed or identified. The
potential employee could allege any reason to justify his interest
in the job, but it is the responsibility of the CI agent to know
how to discern the true motives of the employee , so that he may be
able to persuade him to accept to work for the government.
However, this is often difficult and the necessary ability could be
acquired through experience. The agent, for example, must know
when to appeal to patriotic sense of the individual, when to
indicate to him that it would be best to be anticommunist, or when
to offer him money or some material thing.
3. Place yourself for a moment in the position of the persons
who appears to offer his services for this type of employment.
This person is risking his security and possibly his own life on
agreeing to enter the target zone to obtain information which the
It is serious decision in which the CI agent could contribute in
the final decision that the potential employee makes. But, for
that, the CI agent must know the individual, the feelings which
motivate bin and the factors that exercise influence on his way of
4. We are now going to discuss the variety of reasons that
attract persons to these activities. You, by your experience on
the behavior of persons, could provide many ideas to this
discussion. We shall consider three questions: (1) Which are the
reasons that induce the individuals to work in intelligence
operations? (2) In what form are manifested or could be observed
these reasons? (3) What techniques the CI agent must use to exploit
said reasons for the benefit of the government?
5. IDEOLOGY: It has been frequently proven that the belief in
an ideology is the most convenient Motivation that the potential
employee could possess. When the ideological concept motivates the
employee, his points of view, especially those that refer to
politics and economics, harmonize with those of the government.
Consequently, said employee will frequently accept to carry out
tasks and missions that normally would decline if he was motivated
by other factors. The employee motivated by ideology, as a rule,
is more reliable, faithful and dedicated to his work than persons
moved by other motives, The ideologic motivation implies adhering
to abiding to specific government conceits, such are the
anticommunist struggle or on behalf of democracy. The devotion to
conservatism, liberalism, individualism, etc., could also be
classified as ideologic motivation. Even when they are necessarily
linked to specific political party, the propose however specific
political ideas and way of life.
a. The political motivation of the individual could noted by
the interest he shows in politics, that is to say, his
participation in discussions about political subjects, reading of
books about politics and his membership status in political action
groups or making comments or making comments about political
events. It could also be noted by his reaction to events of
current importance, by his attitude in respect to social reforms
and even by his way of dressing. When the potential employee is
motivated by an ideology, the CI agent could show interest in
political and economic ideas that do not necessarily have to be
similar to those of the candidate to be employed.
Could identify the government with the same ideals that the
potential employee has and suggest to him that, by being a
government employee he would be in a better position to effectively
continue towards realization of said ideals.
6. PATRIOTISM: Patriotism is another convenient motivation in
the character of the potential employee. The patriot loves his
country and he is dedicated to it. Above all the welfare of his
country concerns him, and he wishes to promote its prestige. An
individual motivated by patriotism normally includes the danger
which the insurrection threat represents and would be willing to do
much more than it is expected if that was necessary. The patriotic
motivations as a rule, walks together with the ideologic
a. The patriotic motivation could be distinguished by the way
the individual thinks, acts and feels. His contentions are not
necessarily a clear indication of patriotic motivation. An
potential employee, motivated by patriotism, as a rule, would not
be willing to accept employment in a dangerous situation alien to
every patriotic consideration. However, said individual could be
induced to work for the government provided his employment was
related with a specific patriotic objective.
(*) WHICH IS THE MOST COMMON MOTIVATION FACTOR AMONG POTENTIAL EMPLOYEES?
(*) ANSWER: The expectation of some remuneration or compensation.
7. DESIRE OF PROFIT: The great majority of potential
employees are driven by the desire of profit, that is to say, they
work with the intention of being paid for their services. When
this tendency is noted in the individual, it must be tested until
there is no doubt about that. The way in which he solicits to be
paid and the manner in which he is going to spend what he receives
must be determined. In addition, the fact of being paid in a short
or long period of time must also be considered for security
a. The desire of profit probably is the most common among
the mercenary motivations. Frequently happens that the potential
employee is working, but he wishes to supplement his income. Even
when money is the most common medium used, the individual could ask
to be paid with specific articles difficult to obtain.
The remuneration for the services of the individual could cause
a security problem if precautions are not taken to have
satisfactory explanations to justify any sudden improvement in the
economic condition or standard of living of the individual.
8. DESIRE OF PERSONAL SATISFACTION: The desire of personal
satisfaction is something similar to wish for material benefit.
However, an individual motivated by personal satisfaction does not
try to benefit in the material sense. He could ask to be
compensated with a job that provides respect and certain social
position in the community. Or, he could ask for a favor of great
personal value, totally lacking monetary value.
a. As a rule, it is not difficult to distinguish the
individual who accepts work for material compensation or personal
reasons. A negative test would usually give good results. The CI
agent simply pretends to find out if the individual will work for
nothing. The person motivated by mercenary intentions will usually
accept to work for the government if it agrees to his demands.
Nevertheless, any other method that could suppose interest the
individual must be exhausted.
9. PROFESSIONAL GOALS: Another type of employee is the one who
is motivated by professional goals. Said individual could have had
experience as police investigator, private detective, CI agent, or
investigator for some other government agency. The persons with
experience in investigation work could carry out tasks such as
secret information collectors with greater ease and skill than
those who have not had such experience. The professional motive in
these cases is important, since said individual often want to
continue in this type of work.
10. DESIRE OF REVENGE: The desire of revenge is another
motivation factor that prevails among many potential employees.
Revenge is the urge of removing real or imaginary injustices. Some
of the most obvious reasons that drive the individuals in this
direction are: loss of their properties or business, loss of the
privilege to exercise a profession and personal reasons such as
having been victim of robbery, violation pr personal injuries.
Although this individual could often provide very good information,
the CI agent must take note that because of their personal
sentiments they could prejudge things and, therefore, present
exaggerated or distorted reports.
Employees motivated by vengeance must be dealt with high care,
since generally they are emotionally unstable persons.
a. Potential employees stimulated by motives of injustice
could be easily distinguished, since these generally could be
revealed in the conversation. If not so, the most flagrant
offenses could be noticed through a study of the individuals
history. A sign os sympathy and the wish to help on the part of
the CI agent would normally induce this type of individual to
accept to work for the government. Recruitment of this type of
persons is a comparatively an easy thing. The CI agent could
suggest to potential employee to join a movement, some activity or
organization with which he could identify, providing him at the
same time the opportunity to get it off his chest.
11. WHAT ARE THE DISADVANTAGES OF FEAR AS A MOTIVATION FACTOR.
a. Normally fear could not be successfully used to motivate
individuals. Experience has shown that information obtained on the
basis of fear is unreliable. Employees with negative attitude tend
to offer passive resistance. Therefore, the appearance of the
least obstacle would be reason to stop fulfilling their tasks. In
addition, if an individual has been recruited using f ear as a
weapon, the CI agent must be in a position of maintain the threat.
b. For example, an individual who had committed a crime in a
specific country was recruited after threats that if he was not
going to do it he would be punished for having violated the law.
The individual then accepts the government generous offer and
worked satisfactorily for seven years. However, when this period
of time ended presented his resignation. He knew perfectly well
that there is a legal disposition through which criminal cases
prescribe to seven years and, therefore, the government now could
not prosecute him for the crime committed.
12. We have until now dealt how to determine and identify some
of the most common motivations that usually stimulate the potential
employee. We have considered different methods through
which the CI agent could evaluate the individuals motivation to
induce him to participate in information collection operations for
We said that in some cases, it is difficult to determine the
true motives that could inspire some persons to fork for the
government. In other cases, could exist reasons that appear to be
intimately related. Very rarely an individual is found who is
motivated only and exclusively by a single factor. You, as CI
agents, must know what methods to use when you try to separate and
identify apparently conflicting motives and emotions. when the
individual is driven only by mercenary purposes, it is necessary to
tread carefully. If the government can acquire the services of a
person for a specific price, the guerrillas also could obtain them
for a higher price.
E. METHODS USED TO LOCATE POTENTIAL EMPLOYEES.
1. Now we are going to consider some methods that could be
used to find competent employees. The CI agent must exhaust all
efforts in this search, trying to carry out his activities with
discretion and without revealing why he is interested in a specific
2. The possibilities of findings persons willing to
collaborate with the government, in the place where an insurrection
movement is developing, are immense. specific individuals,
organizations and commercial companies must be the object of
infiltration by government employees, in order to obtain
information about the guerrillas. Now we shall consider how the CI
agent, with discretion, could locate and identify potential
employees who are placed and who have access to desired
information. He knows exactly the qualification which the
potential employee must have, but the problem is to find the
3. METHODS USED TO LOCATE EMPLOYEES.
Archives and Records
Activities of the CI agent
Other government agencies
Local religious workers, physicians, etc.
a. ARCHIVES AND RECORDS.
1) Archives, records and publications represent a good
starting point in the search for potential employees. The archives
and records contain information related to objectives of value.
The lists of names of persons and organizations could help to find
persons who have the necessary qualifications. An archive, for
example, which contains the names and information about the
families and friends of persons who have been victims of the
guerrillas could be of great value. It is logical to support that
said individuals detest the guerrillas and that they could be
willing to participate in the intelligence activities of the
2) Archives about criminal matters could also be
useful. The CI agent must keep in mind that a criminal does not
necessarily have to be a guerrilla. Even though the guerrillas
many times are accustomed to using criminals to carry out
contraband operations, circulate fake money, traffic in contraband
articles, etc., must not commit the error of confusing these two.
if the government places the criminal and the guerrilla in the same
category, it could force the criminal to collaborate with the
guerrilla. On the other hand, a former criminal who does not
sympathize with the cause of the guerrillas could be a good bet to
accept to work for the government.
3) The records of commercial companies who deal in
munitions, sanitary material and other equipment that the
guerrillas need could provide data that will allow to locate
potential employees in said companies. Having a government
employee in a commercial house of this type allows to to guard in
advance against possible guerrilla activities and to obtain
detailed information about specific operations. Checking the
archives could also supply additional information about persons
already considered as possible candidates for employment by us.
b. CI AGENT ACTIVITIES:
1) The search for potential employees must be carried
out as part of the normal activities of the CI agent. He could be
busy, usually, in policy type projects or some other kind that nay
allow him to cover the entire zone.
But regardless of the type of work that he performs, it is
indispensable to rely on the respect and voluntary cooperation of
the population. Achieving this assignment, the population in its
entirety should be considered as potential employees.
2) The CI agent will undoubtedly have in his round the
opportunity to get to know government officials, merchants and
peasants, small business proprietors, workers, etc. Said persons
could very well be converted to guerrillas or information
collectors for the government. The CI agent could
direct the conversations towards subjects that would allow him to
evaluate his interlocutor, and thus obtain the information that
subsequently could confirm in the archives. Nevertheless, he must
keep in mind that any individual with whom he strikes up
conversation could very well be a member of the guerrilla
c. OTHER GOVERNMENT AGENCIES:
1) Government agencies could in many cases help discover
potential employees. However, even in this case, the CI agent must
conceal all interest that he may have in said parson, since there
is the possibility that the guerrillas may he informants within the
government. On the other hand, a trusted official could
inadvertently reveal said information.
2) The CI agent must review the records of all government
agencies dedicated in investigation and verification of employees
I history. This allows to identify the parents and friends of
guerrillas, as well as individuals originating from the zones
dominated by them, who could be useful to the government. It is to
be expected that in the refugee camps and centers, in all the
places where interrogations are conducted, in the food distribution
and control centers, and even in warehouses and markets, records of
some kind would be found.
3) The CI agent could take advantage of the assistance
programs through which the government supplies food, clothes,
medical assistance and housing to population. Since these are
programs with which the government is already identified, the
individuals who have benefitted from them could be persuaded to
collaborate in the search for persons willing to work for the
The CI agent must offer presents and compensation for
information leading to the arrest, capture or death of guerrillas.
This is another method that could be used successfully to locate
d. MILITARY ACTIVITIES:
1) Performing patrol service or other military activities
that imply establishing contact with the population is another
discreet way of obtaining information. The military units, in
performing their usual reconnaissance tasks in the villages,
usually search the houses and interrogate the villagers. The CI
agent or one of the supervisors could accompany the patrols and to
make certain that a routine interrogation mission is carried out.
e. LOCAL RELIGIOUS WORKERS, PHYSICIANS, ETC>:
1) Educators, physicians, social and religious
workers in the locality could also provide much information to CI
agent. said individuals, as a rule, maintain a close relationship
with the population and enjoy the respect of the same. They are
used also to conserve a variety of records that could be a strong
source of useful Information.
f) OTHER EMPLOYEES:
1) At times, individuals in government service could help to
find other employees. In some cases, the use of persons who
already work for the government is absolutely indispensable. In
other cases, the CI agent could use an individual whose unique
mission is to find potential employees. For security reasons, of
course, the individual in charge of the task of findings potential
employees must not be told if the persons recommended by him were
subsequently employed by the government. The practice of using
persons already employed by the government to find other employees
could be dangerous. The CI agent must conserve absolute control in
these situations and have complete confidence in the judgement of
the person to whom the mission of finding other employees has been
F. SEARCH FOR EMPLOYEES WITHIN THE ORGANIZATION.
1. We have considered more or less in detail the essential
requirements and the factors which motivate employees or potential
employees. We discussed some of the most common procedures used to
find said employees. On discussing the importance of accessibility
to valuable information, we said that in these situations it was
most advisable to procure the services of persons who belonged to
the guerrilla organization. It is logical, therefore, to
understand that the search for suitable individuals must be
concentrated and limited in the first place to persons who serve in
the files of the subversive organization. The possibility of using
the services of persons connected one way or another with the
insurrection movement must not be neglected.
2. The ideal regarding every infiltration attempt would be to
be carried out at the highest level of the guerrilla organization.
Considering the security measures themselves of these organizations
and ideologic indoctrination of the leaders of these movements,
such enterprise would be very daring. Nevertheless, none of the
possibilities must be discarded before it is seriously and
carefully thought out. The guerrilla Is human and, therefore,
subject to make mistakes, to incur in wrong evaluations and to be
negligent in what refers to security measures. The cases of key
individuals who have abandoned the ranks of a guerrilla movement
for almost any type of imaginable reason, from the philosophic to
psychopathic, abound in history.
3. The middle echelon of the guerrilla organization is the
next most advisable place to look for employees. They are more
numerous at this level, who as a rule are less decided and
convinced persons in their personal and ideologic beliefs. This
provided a much wider field to find potential employees, but
naturally the degree of access to information that these
individuals could have generally diminishes in proportion to the
influence and power of the individual.
4. Must keep in mind that within the structure of the
guerrilla organization, there are persons who either by negligence,
carelessness and other reasons, alien to every ideologic
consideration, find themselves in vulnerable positions.
Often, some principal members of the movement could mistrust
others because of envy, result of some decisions taken, personality
differences or in the struggle to gain power. The persons who have
been disciplined by the guerrilla organization are,, as a rule,
good candidates for us. At times, the government could even foment
discord among the ranks of the guerrilla elements through well
palled and executed plots.
5. Any of these factors or a combination of them could
provide the CI agent with the opportunity to obtain the services of
individuals in administrative positions in the guerrilla
organization. However, any attempt to reach individuals at the
middle or upper echelon of said organization must be made with the
utmost discretion after careful selection of the employees. The
continuous and methodical investigation of the archives, records
and reports must be complemented and confirmed through careful
observation of the individual who is investigating for our
6. At the lower level of operation of guerrilla activities,
access of the individuals to valuable information is highly
limited, but if an infiltration is achieved at this level, that
could be a valuable source for information about guerrilla
activities in the locality. The security measures at this level
are not always effective and often individuals are found at this
level, with the promise of obtaining some personal benefit or
monetary compensation if they are willing to cooperate.
7. Another method of being able to infiltrate the guerrilla
organization consists in recruiting persons who are known to be
involved in clandestine intelligence activities for the benefit of
the guerrillas. Even when this method is difficult and implies
certain some measure of risk, if it is successful, the results
could be highly satisfactory. Any hostile employee who is capture
by or is in a compromising situation with the government must be
immediately subject of an exhaustive evaluation, in order to
determine if his services would be beneficial for the government.
8. The support base of the guerillas is another
propitious place where to look for potential employees. To the
extend its organization grows, that greater is the dependency of
the guerrillas on the local population for purposes of logistic
support,economic support, human resources and shelter means.
Within this support base, the security measures are usually
weak, being probable the existence of a number of persons not
identified with the guerrilla cause. Some could oppose the
guerrillas, when there is discretion or for ideologic or patriotic
reasons, or due to some misfortune directly or indirectly
attributed to acts of intimidation, terrorism and repression of
guerrilla elements. Persons in these situations could join the
insurrection movement for reasons of convenience or as means of
survival. Consequently, the individuals in these conditions could
be considered as our logical candidates.
9. In places where the guerrillas have succeeded in
attracting workers, shopkeepers, students, peasants, women and
other groups in disciplined support nucleus, the government must
try to have employees in each group. As a rule, it is much more
easier to try to obtain the services of founder members of these
groups than to try to introduce a person in said organizations.
10. In zones where the guerrillas have succeeded in
establishing a support base within the population, educators,
doctors, clergy and civilian leaders frequently remain faithful to
the government in view of their positions. Said individuals could
provide information and make very valuable recommendations in
regards to potential employees. Must not arbitrarily disregard any
company, organization or group that maintains relations or carried
out transactions with the guerrillas.
11. Experience has shown that the radius of action of the
guerrillas is limited only by their physical ability to reach all
their targets. Some high priority targets are universal, while
others could be peculiar to a specific country. Among the most
common targets of the guerrillas, one could mention the
universities, syndicates, religious organizations, circulation
organs, local political parties and police and military
12. A government threatened with an insurrection outbreak
must not leave the guerrillas get the advantage in recruitment of
employees within said organizations. Each known objective and
those that is expected to become future targets must be subjects of
a periodic investigation seeking to procure the services of those
individuals who meet the necessary requirements.
13. The range and magnitude of every infiltration within an
organization must be considered in relation with the circumstances
existing in the same. In some cases, it could be necessary to hide
a single key employee to obtain the required information, while in
other occasions the proliferation of government employees in the
organization could be possible as well as advisable. Generally, it
is preferable to infiltrate every known organization where guerrilla
elements work instead if trying to predict its strategy to be later proven mistaken.
A. We have discussed the methods used to find suitable persons
for work in government service in information gathering secret
activities. We considered some of the requirements that said
persons must meet and we established some general standards to
serve as criteria in the selection of personnel. Nevertheless, we
recognize that every standard must be sufficiently flexible to
allow quick adaptations depending on the nature of the work that
the person has to carry out. In addition, we said that in rarely
is a person found that meets all the desirable positive qualities.
B. We also talked how to take note and identify some of the most
common motivations which stimulate potential employees. We warned
that it is difficult to precise the true motivations which drive
the individual in some cases and that in others, said motivations
could be intimately related. And so the importance of knowing how
to separate and identify the different emotions and motives that
could be stimulating the individual.
C. Finally, we discussed the usefulness of registers and
archives and the help that government employees, government
agencies and other employees could provide in the task of findings
potential employees inside the guerrilla organization, in its
support base and in places where project to develop their
CHAPTER III: INVESTIGATION AND INITIAL CONTACT
As you probably have guessed, there are three steps that must be
followed in acquiring a potential employee: Finding him,
investigate his history and establish contact. All other
subsequent steps are part of the utilization phase. We have
considered the procedure that the CI agent must follow in order to
find a presumed employee. Must consider the possible position of
the presumed employee and the facility with which he could operate
in a given environment, in addition to-considering all his
aptitudes. Must also scrutinize the motivation that the individual
could have. Must know the vulnerabilities of the guerrillas and
how and where to look for presumed employees.
A. When the CI agent has tentatively found a presumed employee,
he must initiate an investigation of his history in order to obtain
all available information, before he actually begins to establish
contact with him. on conducting the investigation he must use his
support personnel where it may be necessary. In order to obtain
the pertinent information should be able to use all investigation
resources. The CI agent must dissolve the personnel which for some
reason for another may not be appropriate for the mission. He
should investigate all pertinent archives including those of all
governmental agencies without revealing the true nature of the
investigation. The CI agent in essence, carried out an initial
thorough investigation of the history of the presumed employee, of
his personality, his outstanding characteristics and vices, his
likes and his dislikes, etc.
B. once the initial investigation has been completed, the CI
agent shall analyze the information and shall develop a plan to
reach the individual. In other words, he initiates the procedure
to establish contact, at the moment in which begins to analyze the
information and to evaluate the individual.
As I informed you in the acquiring phase, the step to establish
contact is a complete procedure that must be planned and developed
so that the CI agent can convince an individual to accept the
employment. We recognize that there are occasions when, due to the
nature of the mission and the fact that the CI agent may have
established a good relationship with the individual, perhaps may
not be necessary to conduct a detailed investigation and the
elaborate procedure to establish contact. In such rare cases, it
could be possible to do without the acquiring phase. But, in the
majority of cases, the CI agent will have to follow the procedure
to establish contact.
C. This procedure could be divided into defined steps depending
on the action that has to be carried out. We already mentioned the
evaluation step, in which we analyze the information obtained
during the initial investigation and to determine the method that
we are going to use to convince the individual to collaborate with
the government. Then we plan how we are going to reach the
individual. This shall be done pleasantly in order that we are
able to win his respect, his friendship and his confidence. Before
trying to reach the individual, must establish the relations
necessary to win his confidence and respect at the beginning, as
well as subsequently his faithfulness and control. The CI agent,
in the phase of finding a presumed employee, must have analyzed
that motivation that the individual could have and must have
expanded his study after the initial investigation.. on becoming
familiar with the individual, the CI agent shall determine the
reason that he could have and use it totally. Shall cultivate the
friendship of the presumed employee and develop it until he has had
sufficient time to study him thoroughly; then and only then is when
he will really try to establish contact --- try to convince him to
collaborate with the intelligence service.
D. As it can be seen, in order to be able to determine the
acquiring phase it requires such time, detailed planning, analysis
and great skill. We are dealing with human beings Who have their
own ideas and act individually. When the investigation is
completed and establishing the contact itself has begun, we depend
on the information and the ability to analyze the individual and to
develop the situations. The majority of the operations related
with presumed employees are analytical.'
Nevertheless, due to the fact that we are working with
individuals, certain parts of our operation could be considered as
na "art". We must recognize this fact and develop this art
necessary to successfully conclude the procedure to establish
contact. If they study the analytical part and learn to apply it
as well as their common sense, intuition, knowledge and art, there
is no doubt they will be successful.
E. INVESTIGATION OF PRESUMED EMPLOYEES:
1. SYSTEMATIC SCRUTINY:
------ STRONG POINT
------ ECONOMIC SITUATION
------ POLITICAL INCLINATIONS
2. Let's suppose that a mission was assigned and that we
already have analyzed his requirements as well as the target. We
also have found some presumed employees who seem to meet the
necessary qualifications to be placed in an area and to operate
easily in a given environment in order to carry out a mission. Now
we must study the best qualities in order to carry out the mission.
This analysis is a systematic study of the individual, which
includes his strong points, weaknesses, personality, ideology,
religion, economic situation, political inclinations and
affiliations, lineage, education higher professional training to
obligatory, travels abroad, habits, friendships and his linguistic
knowledge. We conduct a detailed investigation of each individual
in order to be able to eliminate those who are not suitable and to
select the most qualified.
3. This investigation is carried out carefully but without
any one finding out. The CI agent and his superiors are the only
ones who must know the true reason for which this investigation is
It is important to bear in mind that all the information,
whether derogatory or not, is important for the investigation.
Therefore, the CI agent in investigating the archives must search
for all the information that he could obtain about the presumed
employee, since only on the basis of it he could plan and perfect
his procedure of establishing contact, when he has all the
information in his possession. The same as in any other operation,
in order to achieve his objective, he should plan every movement to
be able to assure a systematic and without problems operation.
F. INITIAL INVESTIGATION PROCEDURES:
1. During the initial investigation, the CI agent must
develop the necessary information- keeping the following question
in mind: Should I continue the investigation? If the evidence
indicate that the individual works for another friendly service or
collaborates with the guerrilla movement, we must continue the his
utilization for another type of mission in the last case. We could
continue the investigation, but probably it will not be with the
intention of using the individual in the mission we had in mind. if
it is determined that the individual is a criminal or a swindler
known in the intelligence circles, normally the investigation will
be discontinued. However, remember that perhaps in some situations
the services of a person of that nature are required, therefore do
not automatically discard him. You will have analyzed his mission
and will know the type of individual who could complete the
mission; so that the most suitable to be selected.
2. In almost every case, it is necessary that the
investigation begins with a check of the archives in our own
office. There could be isolated cases in which would be required
to carry out an immediate check of the archives of another agency,
since it is possible that said information is not available before
hand or due to the fact that the information is such archives is
urgently needed. Whatever the case may be, the CI agent must be
flexible and use his common sense. As a rule, we conduct an
investigation in our own archives in order to determine if some of
our presumed employees have voluntarily contributed information or
if the name is recorded in said archives for some other reason.
Frequently, good trails and excellent investigations have been
developed because the CI agent began with a thorough investigation
of his own files.
Since the main office is at a higher level, in addition to
having information about our area of interest, it also has
information about all the activities under its responsibility. We
have two great advantages when we conduct the investigation in the
archives of our own agency: First, it is very probable that the
veracity of the source of said information may have been evaluated
with precision, thus simplifying the analysis; and, second, there
is less probability of compromising the security and the pertinent
problems could be resolved much easier. In the first case, the CI
agent will always be able to ask questions from his colleagues who
interrogated the source or conducted the prior investigation. If
he is not able to make contact with the original investigator, he
could obtain the classification assigned by him about the veracity
of the source> If he is conducting the investigation within his own
organization, it is less probable that security problems would
develop since there is no need to have to reveal the names of the
individuals or other persons outside his agency.
3. Frequently. neither his own office or the main office have
the required information and the CI agent will have to analyze the
archives of other agencies. on investigating said archives, he must
not indicate the purpose of his investigation. For example, out
intelligence agency would normally have relations with other units
and military and civilian intelligence agencies and the police.
There must be a good connection, probably could investigate the
archives of another agency and this way eliminate the risks of
security compromise. However, all agencies do not allow anyone to
see their archives, but if you provide them a list, they themselves
would conduct the investigation. The CI agent could conceal his
true intention or the nature of the investigation in different
ways. For example, he could submit a list of 15 or more names some
of which are presumed employees and could request to be provided
all the information that the agencies may have on each one of the
individuals. This would conceal the true nature of the
investigation in addition to passing out the names. Other methods
could be used, but he must make certain that security is maintained
all the time.
4. The CI agent on concluding his investigation could
determine that the individual is not collaborating with another
agency. Although he may have had contact with the agency, it is
possible that his representatives may have had their reasons for
not providing the requested information. An investigation of the
archives which gives a negative result usually would allow the CI
agent to conclude: First, that the informant has no criminal record
for the intelligence; second, that if he is a criminal or a
guerrilla, he has been sufficiently audacious not to be discovered.
A source or a competent intelligence agent of the enemy will be
well trained and will avoid being discovered. He will have learned
many of the same techniques that the government CI agent has and
will be very interested not to compromise security. The lack of
information, as a result of an investigation of the archives,
indicates that the investigation must continue. The CI agent is
not able to reach conclusions or develop a plan if he does not have
5. The CI agent, after checking the archives, must carry out
an investigation in the community to verify above all the
reputation, personality, character, habits, favorite hobbies,
social customs, etc., of the presumed employee. He could conduct
this part of the investigation himself , or he could assign the
mission to support personnel of investigations. In friendly areas
the investigation in the community could lie carried out easily.
Normally it is not convenient for the CI agent to conduct
investigations in areas controlled by the guerrillas. we must
assume that the guerrillas are watching and his operation would
fail; must employ hix support personnel of secret investigations to
look for information. These could be any means for the collection
of information, depending on the personnel involved and the
specific situation. He is located in the area, knows the majority
of the villagers and can casually ask questions without raising
suspicions. He can perform the role of a talkative traveler who is
interested in selling his merchandize. He must seek the
information without raising suspicion.
6. The CI agent as well as his assistant have many identities
which they can conceal when they carry out an investigation in a
For example, since the government has many projects that include
town improvements, rural reconstruction or agrarian reform, it is
common to see representative in the community asking questions and
taking notes. To assume the identity of an investigator for the
department of statistics who is taking the census of the population
is very useful. The CI agent on assuming the identity df such
representative could look for much information without rasing
7. Although the surveillance techniques will be
considered in detail farther on in training, we must consider them
here from the point of view of their usefulness, in the
investigation of a presumed employee. During our consideration of
the investigation, we stipulate that it could develop trails that
could help immensely. If for some reason or another, there is no
information in the archives and a thorough investigation in the
community is inadequate, the CI agent could use surveillance to
conduct his investigation. Perhaps he wishes to verify the
activities or interests; and could wish to investigate the
relationship or ideas that the presumed employee may have in
respect to guerrilla movement. They need a thorough planning, as
well as trained and intelligence personnel to conduct an
investigation surveillance. The surveillance must be carried out
in secret so that neither the individual nor the guerrillas
discover the operation. The same will all other measures.
8. In singular cases where all other investigation methods
do not contribute adequate information, the CI agent could try to
talk with the presumed employee. He must plan such
conversation to the last detail before trying to speak with the
presumed employee. The conversation is such, like the word implies,
an informal talk. The individual will have the impression that he
is conversing friendly with a courteous individual. The CI agent
must try to obtain the information that he needs without the
individual becomes suspicious of his purpose. Once such
conversation has been planned, that is to say, when the manner how
he is going to present himself to the individual and develop the
required information casually has been determined, the conversation
itself will depend on the ingenuity and his imagination. He must
be able to capture any observation that could be used and must be
prepared to develop additional information. He must retain in his
mind all the information obtained.
G. PROCEDURES TO ESTABLISH CONTACT;
1. It is difficult to consider the initial investigation in
relation with the start of the procedure to establish contact due
to the fact that they overlap. The CI agent naturally must begin
to evaluate the presumed source as soon as he has information that
requires to plan the manner how he is going to approach the
individual and establish contact. But the individual must be kept
under continues investigation. As a result of the initial
investigation, a large file is developed that could be followed in
other trails. The CI agent would wish to know every action and
inclination of the individual, not only during the phases of the
initial investigation and of the contact but also during his
training, discharge of his obligations and all his projects.
Therefore, a continuous investigation shall be maintained, not
daily, but in an irregular manner to be up to date in all the
activities of the presumed employee.
2. Once the CI agent has considered adequate the information
to analyze and evaluate the presumed employee, he shall begin the
procedure to establish contact itself. A procedure is a particular
method that is followed to carry out something that generally
includes different steps or operations. The procedure to establish
contact is the method that is followed to know, cultivate
friendship and subsequently convince him to collaborate. This is'-
. a sequence that must be followed if the CI agent has to convince
the individual to accept the job. It is not an arbitrary step or
actions that he has to carry out with common sense. The procedure
begins with the evaluation. This is done on studying the
information gathered during the initial investigation.
concurrently, once we have finished gathering the principal
characteristics about our individual, we prepare a plan to approach
him and subsequently to meet him. We must begin the necessary
relations with the. individual, cultivate then and win his
confidence. The procedure reaches its culminating point when we
ask him if he wants to work with us. The common sense reveals that
although these steps follow a certain order, some will be
continuous and certainly others will overlap. The evaluation of
the informant is a continuous procedure. The CI agent must be
ready to capture any indication of disaffection, of too much
confidence or talkativeness.
He must be prepared to change the method that had been planned
to cultivate relations with the individual, after evaluating him in
accessible phase. It could be that the presumed employee does not
have the personality that the analysis reveals from the information
obtained in the initial investigation. The development of
relations with the individual is another continuous step that will
last the entire time that the relationship has to be maintained.
Must establish some relations of mutual respect and trust in order
to maintain this harmony.
3. Once the initial investigation is ended, the CI agent
shall analyze the information and evaluate the presumed employee.
He must determine when, where and how to-approach the individual.
This must be carefully planned and to the and, since the manner how
the individual is going to be approached is a highly delicate step
in the procedure to establish contact. If the initial evaluation
is in error, the manner how to approach the individual is reflected
in the degree of success that can be achieved. We shall consider,
in the analysis of the second step that we are going to follow, the
plan of how we are going to approach the individual. The CI agent
carries out the encounter with him. During this initial personal
encounter, he continues analyzing the individual. Using this
personal evaluation as a base, he could determine if the individual
isr adequate for the job. Analyzes the individual Is personality
and concludes the plan to cultivate his friendship and finally
could convince him to collaborate. There is no limit in the amount
and type of information that could be obtained in this initial
encounter. This offers the CI agent the opportunity to obtain the
details that he needs to complete his fileo It is possible that
said details may have not been available until this initial
encounter, simply because the presumed employee was the only one
who knew these factors.
4. In addition, the subsequent encounters will allow the Cl
agent to be able to continue evaluating the individual, cultivating
his friendship and developing his methods to establish the contact
itself, in accordance with his personality and motivations that he
could have. Therefore, the procedure to establish contact begins
with an initial evaluation, he continues studying and evaluating
him in order to be able to determine the best manner to convince
5. The initial evaluation will help the CI agent to develop
a plan to approach the individual.
A plan is formulated to anticipate the problems that could
emerge and to reduce errors. For example, if according to his
evaluation, it is determined that the presumed employee is not
adequate, he must have devised a method to distance himself from
the individual casually and to discontinue the relations, without
him coming to suspect the truth. On the other hand, if the
evaluation is favorable for the presumed employee, the CI agent
must have planned the time and place where the encounter is going
to take place. Each detail of the initial encounter is planned to
assure us that all the imaginable possibilities have been
considered. The purpose is to carry out a real and natural
encounter with the presumed employee. A written plan is prepared,
in order to be carefully studied and to annotate all the pertinent
information. Although there is not a single format that must be
inflexibly followed, nevertheless, we will show below a typical
Like in any other plan, there is a preamble. We note all the
information like the name of the presumed employee, the date and
place of birth, his residence, place of employment, etc. we also
include the date of the plan, the project number, and any
additional reference. the heading must be written like a form with
blank spaces that have to be completed clearly outlined; these
spaces must make it easy to make annotations, also to be simple to
read. The project number is clearly indicated in order to be able
to file and easily located later on.
b. SUMMARY OF THE INFORMATION OF THE INITIAL INVESTIGATION;
Although the information that was received as a result of the
initial investigation is controlled and filled under the assigned
project number, the plan to approach the individual must contain a
summary of the information. The condensed version includes all the
pertinent data together with the archives number and must offer to
CI agent some adequate references to prepare the evaluation. That
is to say, includes all the principal factors related with the
suitability, trustworthiness, personality and history of the
presumed employee that could inf luence in his collaboration with
The next step in the plan is the analysis of the information
obtained in the initial investigation and the evaluation of the
presumed employee. The CI agent must have studied all the
pertinent information obtained from the archives, the community and
the surveillance and be, using the information as basis, must reach
some firm conclusions with respect to the individual. He describes
the personality of the presumed employee, indicating his strong
characteristics, weaknesses, idiosyncracies, as well as those
experiences which he may have had that could affect his employment.
The CI agent indicates the possible reasons
that the individual could have. Also he analyzes the information
to determine the best way to approach him. He determines when,
where and how to carry out the encounter with the individual. The
following questions must be answered: What type Of encounter is
projecting? when and where will be carried out? what pretext the
presumed employee will use to be there? which are the details of
his journey and that of the CI agent to reach the meeting place?
which surveillance and countersurveilance means are going to be
used? What other security measures are going to be used? What
reasons has the individual to be away from the place where he
d. ANALYZING THE MEETING DETAILS:
1) There are many factors that must be considered when the
first meeting is going to be carried out. The CI agent lists each
one, forms plans for each one, and determines before hand his own
identity, in addition to the phrases that are going to initiate the
conversation and the manner that is going to follow.
2) If the presumed employee meets all the qualities and is
ready to try to convince him to collaborate with the government,
the CI agent must be prepared to establish the contact himself. He
must be prepared to offer him a guarantee or a contract, as well as
to train him on the communication means, identity and security. He
must have formulated the plans for a future encounter, together
with the signals and the identity that he is going to use to arrive
there. on the other hand, if the CI agent determines that the
individual does not meet the qualifications for the job, he must
have anticipated how he is going to distance himself from the
individual without him understanding the reason for the meeting or
his true identity. Finally, the CI agent must have ready how he is
going to end the meeting, whether the individual meets the
qualifications or not.
1) The final part of the plan includes additional remarks of
recommendations. The plan must be submitted to be carefully
studied and approved before establishing the initial. contact.
2) Although the CI agent Vill have analyzed the information
that he compiled during the initial investigation, he will not be
certain in the manner how the presumed employee is going to react
at this meeting. Therefore, he has planned this meeting to the
last detail, he must allow sufficient flexibility to be able to
deal with any eventuality that may arise. on formulating his plans,
the CI agent carefully considers the place where he is going to-
talk. The initial meeting, as well as the rest that-]nay be
carried out in places where he is cultivating the friendship and
confidence of the individual, must be carried out in tranquil
establishments which are not frequented by his friends,
acquaintances and associates. In normal circumstances, well known
establishments and government buildings are not used. The place to
be selected depends completely on the social. position and work of
the presumed employee, as well as the environment. in some
circumstances, a room in an innocuous hotel room is sufficient, in
others, a fishing boat could be opportune.
3) There are different ways that a CI agent could introduce
himself to a presumed employee. On method that is used is to be
introduced by a third person, that in to say, the CI agent
is Introduced to the individual by a mutual friend. This type of
encounter has a disadvantage from the security point of view. This
third person will know the identity of the presumed employee and
the interest that the CI agent has in him. This disadvantage could
be overcome if this third person works for the CI agent or if said
CI agent has assumed a false identity to conceal his true
occupation or his motives. If this mutual friend has confidence in
the CI agent, the presumed employee will have to confide in him,
offering a good opportunity to cultivate his friendship and to win
4) If security is one of the principal concerns and the
situations allows it, the CI agent could make use of the casual
It is an apparently accidental and extraordinary encounter, like
in a fiesta, festival, cantina, sports game, etc. Although the
individual believes that this is an accidental encounter, the CI
agent has planned it to the last detail. The method of a casual
encounter is the safest because there is no third person involved.
However, it is difficult to establish an immediate friendship and
to win this person's confidence with this method.
4) In specific cases, the CI agent could make use of
periodicals, publishing employment opportunities, in order to
attract presumed employees. The individual would be required to
submit a written application or to personally appear to a job
interview, which provides a direct manner to approach him at the
beginning. This technique also offers an easy exit in case the
individual is not considered adequate. If he meets all the
qualifications, could agree to another interview with the pretext
that he is going to be employed. Similar notices could be
published in circulars or be attached on bulletin boards where
notices are attached, with the aid of the local employment office.
what kind of employment could the CI agent announce? In the first
place, he should publish the qualifications that the presumed
employee must have, without giving details about the employment.
He could indicate the salary, the work hours, the advancement
opportunities, etc. The interview with the presumed employee is
health in a place like a hotel room. The initial information that
he could obtain will depend on the man. Remember, it is not
necessary that the CI agent provide him any information. He must
let the presumed employee speak, since he could evaluate him better
an listening to his conversation. If the CI agent believes that it
is necessary to describe the job, the description that he offers
must be similar to the true employment. The Job offered must
attract the appropriate individual. For. example: You are a
specialist in industrial or agricultural research that needs a
local assistance to compile material or information for a certain
philanthropic or educational specific installation. You could pass
as e-an economist who is gathering data for a book about the
economic development of the country or could pass as an engineer
carrying out topographic of geodesic reliefs for the preparation of
some maps. These are only some ideas that could be used. other
identities that can be assumed will depend on the mission, on the
presumed employee and the situation. The purpose is to obtain date
about the individual, to evaluate him personally and to provide an
opportunity to be accepted and to win his confidence or to reject
6) Although we already considered this step as the one to be
carried out before approaching the employee, we know that the CI
agent maintains harmonious relations while he develops the manner
to approach. he is evaluating the personality of the individual to
determine which subjects and manner of talking will be adequate in
the conversation. once he has already known the presumed employee,
the CI agent must try to establish some friendly but professional
relations within. This could be achieved through a careful study
and consideration of the individuals interests. The good CI agent
does not reveal his own beliefs in contentious subjects such as
social, economic and religious problems presently in the country.
He must ask pertinent and intelligent questions from the individual
about conversation subjects that would allow him to talk.
7) The development of friendship and maintenance of
harmonious relations do not end with the initial encounter;
appropriate harmonious relations are maintained while the
individual is employed. Nevertheless, we must remember that the
CI agent must control the operation: the employed must obey
him. They must develop and maintain a mutual trust and
respect. The CI agent is 'the' superior and the employee the
subordinate. In order to maintain the necessary control and to
demand the necessary trust and respect, the CI agent displays
confidence and his knowledge. In brief plans shows his
qualifications as master of command when he controls the
8) In our study of Finding a Presumed Employee we
considered in detail the motivation that he could have. We
determined that there are many motivations and that there are
different methods to take advantage of them. motivation is another
step in the proceeding to establish contact that overlaps
considerably. As we know, the CI agent considers the motivations
that the presumed employee could have when he initiated the search.
one of the principal concerns during the initial investigation is
to discover what drives the employee to accept the job. During the
evaluation we analyzed the motivation which the presumed employee
could have and we formulated the plans to develop them. More
details are added to the pan after the initial meeting and the
method to be followed to convince the individual to collaborate is
decided. The CI agent must recognize the importance that
motivation has. Certainly this is the force which impulses men to
try to surpass and face life.
What is what impulses this individual to collaborate with you,
the CI agent of the government? one this determination has been
made with prediction, the motivation could be successfully
developed and matured. He at the same time will correctly perceive
the control that could be exercised on the individual and will be
ready in any indication of dissatisfaction. In brief, the CI agent
must know the reason and its intensity in order to be able to
control his employee and to develop his abilities.
6. CULTIVATING HIS FRIENDSHIP AND WINNING THE CONFIDENCE:
a. Before the CI agent really offers the job to the
individual, he must cultivate his friendship and win his
confidence. There are occasions when said friendship is cultivated
during the initial encounter. For example, one of the requirements
could be to demand that this friendship to be earned immediately.
The CI agent does not have time to cultivate the individuals
friendship and to employ the tact that is normally used. He must
approach the ndividual in a "bold" manner. This implies an initial
investigation, analysis and an evaluation carried out quickly and
when the CI agent approaches the individual to conduct a hurried
personal evaluation and to establish the contact with him himself.
For that reason, this method requires a hurried evaluation.
b. However, in normal circumstances, will have time to
develop the friendship and prepare the individual before he accepts
the job. Some individuals do not trust other persons so quickly.
To cultivate a friendship takes an intuitive ability and artistic
talent. This is a step in which the CI agent, with experience and.
well trained could show his ability. We previously mentioned that
these operations require analysis and art. The CI agent, on
cultivating the friendship of a presumed indecisive employee, uses
his experience and common sense, he is flexible and he is prepared
to meet all contingencies that may arise; it is the art of a subtle
persuasion. He must convince the individual that he, the CI agent,
is reliable, competent and professional. He has to win the trust
and confidence of the presumed employee before offering him the
job. If the step of cultivating the friendship has been duly
concluded, the individual will normally accept the position.
7. ESTABLISHING CONTACT:
a. The culmination and purpose of every investigation,
planning and cultivation of friendship Is carried out during the
contact itself; that is to say, that the individual accepts the
job. When we talk about the contact, we want to say that moment
when the CI agent really offers the job to the individual. The
contact itself could occur in the initial meeting if the presumed
employee is ready or if he has to be approached with audacity, or
could occur after many months of being cultivating his friendship
and winning his confidence. The conversation to be carried out on
establishing the contact itself and how an indecisive individual is
going to be convinces are skillfully planned.
b. The CI agent, in order to prepare for the establishment of
contact, considers all the subjects that were studied in the plan
to approach the individual. On being analyzed from the practical
point of view, we are aware that a thoroughly prepared plan to
approach an individual allows the CI agent to deal with any
eventuality that could arise. For example, if the plan includes
those actions that must be taken to establish contact when the
individual is ready to accept the job and if the question cannot be
made during the initial meeting, he could use the plan afterwards.
Must have formulated the plans to offer a salary or contract that
have been approved by his superiors.. He must discuss the terms
with the presumed employee and it is possible, make him sign and be
prepared to train the presumed employee in regards to future
security procedures. The individual receives training on the
communication techniques in order to allow him to meet with the CI
agent afterwards. He must be given an identity, a justification
for future meetings with the CI agent and a reason to be away from
his home, job, family, etc. In other words, his true relations
with the CI agent and his whereabouts must be concealed during
these meetings. Therefore, this delicate action must be planned to
the last detail. His considerations are persuasive and thorough,
since it is in the point of establishing contact where all the
effort of acquiring the presumed employee culminates.
a. In the previous chapter we considered two essential steps in
obtaining a presumed employee.
We stipulated that once a CI agent has found a presumed
employee, he must conduct a thorough investigation to determine if
the individual meets the qualifications for the job. This
investigation is known as the initial investigation. The purpose
of said investigation is to recompile all the information that
could be obtained about the presumed employee so that the CI agent
could evaluate it, to determine the reasons that he may have, his
qualifications, history, etc., This evaluation allows the CI
agent to complete the proceeding to establish contact and to obtain
the employee. There are, various sources that we could take
advantage of and different techniques that we can use to
investigate presumed employees. Firsts, we must search our own
archives. WE, using the information obtained as a result of the
investigation of the archives, we could develop the trails and
extend the investigation to the archives of the services who
cooperate with us. We must never divulge the true purpose of our
investigation or the identity of our individual. if the
investigation of the archives does not produce the required
information, the CI agent must initiate an investigation in the
community and a surveillance of the individual. Security is one of
the principal preoccupations since neither the personnel being
interviewed nor the individual must discover that an investigation
is carried out. The CI agent, as last resort, must meet with the
individual and interview him personally; however, this technique is
highly dangerous and requires a careful planning.
B. Once the information has been gathered, the procedure to
establish contact will begin. We must not approach every step
carefully once again, but we must remember that the contact is a
series of actions that are carried out only after a careful
planning and a thorough study. The presumed employee must be
totally evaluated and each phase of the initial meeting must be
planned in detail --- the manner how he is going to be approached.
The complete proceeding, the time, the place where it is to be
carried out, the methods to be used, depend an the mission, the
individual and the operational situation. Very few procedures for
establishing contact are carried out in the same manner. Some take
months to be completed while others require only hours or days.
The CI agent is evaluating the individual constantly and maintains
a flexibility as its situation develops and expecting each action.
The skilful cultivation of friendship and the easy development of
the individual's confidence until he accepts the job, after having
established contact with him, is when the CI agent will
successfully have ended the procedure to make contact.
CHAPTER IV: TASK ASSIGNMENT
One of the goals that a skilful agent wants to achieve is to
obtain the greatest amount of information useable from his
employees in the most secure manner. He must always consider the
mission or the purpose for which the employee was originally
contracted, and to evaluate the amount of work that he has to do.
Factors to be considered are security, capacity and availability of
the employee. Only with a careful evaluation of these factors in
relation to the mission, the agent could complete his mission and
maintain a stable and effective work relationship with the employee
individually. In this chapter shall be discussed the details that
an agent must consider when he assigns the tasks to his employees.
Also the orientation and postorientation preparation. shall be
A. Purpose of the Employee:
If the agent has properly evaluated and contracted the
employee, there will be no doubt in regards to what he can or
cannot do, and must work according to this. The agent could
successfully complete his mission only when using each employee
properly according to his individual abilities.
B. Employee Security.
Tasks that could place the employee in a position in which he
could not give a logical explanation of his presence must not be
assigned to him. However, there are some cases in which the need
of the operations forces us to deviate from this principle The
agent must do every effort to assure the safety of his employee.
The agent must maintain his employee within his rules of action
already established. If he usually returns to his home early at
night, he must not ask him to attend meetings late at night. The
meetings and communications with the employee must be
planned keeping in mind the security. The agent must be concerned
with the security of the employee but he must keep in mind above
all the importance of the mission.
C. Ability of the Employee:
On assigning an operational task to an employee, the agent
must carefully consider the employee's aptitude to carry out the
mission. He must have an extensive knowledge of the employee's
history, a large part of which he must have obtained before and
after contracting him. The agent must be able to assign to the
employee valid and appropriate tasks based on individual
aptitudes.. Also he Must think of such things as the regular
occupation of the employee and to avoid assigning to him many
,missions that could risk his job and possibly his security. For
example, if the position or location of an employee is placed in an
area of great interest for the operations, we would be tempted to
the extreme to give him more tasks than he could possibly complete.
Making an employee work excessively could contribute to an employee
becoming discouraged, or worse, could cause to be detected by the
1. The agent has to deal with two different security aspects
on carrying out any orientation with the employee. The first is
about an evaluation of how well the employee has responded to
training that he has received about security, and how effectively
has put into practice what he learned. in this respect, the agent
wants to be certain that the employee has a reasonable opportunity
to carry out effectively the operational task that has been
assigned to him, using the personal security measures that he has
been taught. The special orientation of an employee for a specific
task must give him a complete direction and objectivity. For
efficiency the employee must receive the must precise, exact and
possibly specific instructions. It is here where the second aspect
emerges. on comparing the security to the efficiency, the agent
must decide up to what point the intelligence organization could be
prejudiced if the employee was discovered. In addition, although
the task in itself was small, its disclosure to unauthorized
persons ---- this commonly would apply to any disclosure to-any
person, since the agent is the only "authorized person" in regards
to what pertains to the employee --- could provide to guerrillas
information about the existence of the intelligence organization
and its objectives in general.
Giving the employee too much information would also make more
difficult the work to evaluate the employee so that he may
fabricate the information. The agent must provide sufficient
information to give the mission every reasonable opportunity for
success, but he must not give more information than necessary to
carry out the mission.
2. As a rule the orientation is given orally. A guide for
the orientation must be used as a verification list to make certain
that it was reported with sufficient details, and from the
intelligence point of view to have more control about that
information that will be disclosed to the employee. The
orientation guide which the agent uses as a verification list for
the oral orientation must be part of the agent's file that will be
used for the postorientation of the employee when he returns from
his mission. The orientation aids must be limited to those that are
necessary to successfully complete the mission, and most not reveal
more than necessary about the objective zone. if some written
material is to be provided to employee, two things must be done:
a. The written material must be kept to minimum and serve
mainly as a reminder.
b. What is needed to be written must be reduced to a code
and be adequately concealed.
In giving his explanation to the employee# the agent must be
careful to avoid using intelligence jargon or imprecise terms.
E. Requirements of an orientation or postorientation area:
1) The orientation or postorientation area shall be
determined on the basis of existing time limitations, the operation
security requirements, the conditions under which the agent must
work, and the complexity and sensitivity of the orientation or
postorientation that will be given to employee. When the use of
considerable technical aids is necessary for the orientation or
postorientation, such as large scale maps, photographic files,
etc., the place must be one where such facilities could be
provided. In addition, when the information presentation
requirements are complex, such-as in cases where coordinates must
be traced, the identification must be exact and it must keep the
orientation, it is necessary that the agent uses places where the
orientation can be carried out without interruptions.
The questions about convenience, as well as requirements of the
intelligence task must be answered favorably on selecting a place
for the orientation or postorientation. The place chosen must
allow the agent, his organization and the employee to conserve
F. Duration of orientation or postorientation:
The duration of an orientation/postorientation is governed by
the complexity of the mission, the focus of the objective, the
employee and the method of operation. If an employee who lives in
the objective zone is receiving an orientation or postorientation,
his documentation as well as the last events relating to the
environment or operational conditions in the objective zone present
little problem, and could be informed of them in a brief manner.
Emphasis is made in the fulfillment of the mission and in that the
employee is given specifically detailed instructions about the
nature of the task he has to perform. on the other hand, if the
employee who is oriented requires many documents, the introduction
to this and the explanation of his relation with the mission to be
carried out must be in a more detailed form. Also a comparison
could be made of an orientation or postorientation of an employee
who lives in the objective zone, who is oriented or post-oriented
by an agent under conditions that may require maximum security on
the part of the participants, with an orientation or post-
orientation conducted in a domestic zone under conditions provided
by the accommodations.
G. Use of Orientation Aids.
1. since the agent is familiarized before hand with the
nature and location of the objective, he must make all possible
preparations to provide these elements that are necessary for a
complete orientation. Above all, the agent must prepare an
orientation plan in order to be able to give the employee all the
details of the operation. The orientation plan serves as a
verification list during an orientation and assures that there is
not a prejudicial omission.
2. The employees orientations under practically every
operational situation must be a verbal process in its totality.
Consequently, the agent must be able to communicate in an effective
manner with the employee.
This facilitates the use of orientation aids ( some in graphic
art form, photographs or models for illustration purposes) to the
extend that it is necessary for a perfect comprehension during
3. The maps must be used to indicate the location of the
objective and the travel routes to and from the objective zone.
The models of the known security barriers must be used to orient
the employee about the infiltration and withdrawal methods. In
addition to that, photographs, models of the objective and of the
equipment, uniforms. recorders and other types of aids could be
used to facilitate the orientation.
4. The previously mentioned diverse aids are as a rule used
during the training phase to prepare the employee for his task
before the final orientation. The orientation then will show to
the employee how this particular training applies to this specific
situation, and also will allow the agent to determine the
effectiveness of the employee's training.
5. The same principles that apply to aids used during the
orientation apply to post-orientation.
H. Objective of Orientation:
1. The orientation of an employee. could be considered asan
extension of his training in very specific fields. Even though it
is, up to a certain point, a training continuation, it is more than
that because actually prepares or must prepare the employee for an
immediate operational task that he is expected to carry out.
Invariably case, the- degree of success that the employee would
have in completing his mission is directly related to the
orientation that he received from the agent before undertaking the
task. The employees orientation consists in providing him the most
recent events that could affect the operation, a general review of
the pertinent operational facts and detailed instructions regarding
the task itself. Thus we can say that the orientation of an
employee consists of two different parts:
a> Prepare the employee for the task, giving him the most
recent information about the conditions and environment within
which he is expected-to carry out his specific task.
The first phase of the orientation consists of the review and
evaluation of the situation. The preparation of an employee to
undertake a specific task includes all these abilities, knowledge
and experience that form the basis for his selection for the job.
It includes also the training that he was given in order to allow
him to reach this expertise that the agent considers necessary for
the task. The orientation, well, must give in its first phase all
pertinent Information about the present situation, based on the
most recent facts which the intelligence organization has
available. It must include a review of the most recent information
regarding the measures and security restrictions in effect in the
area of operation ( such things like curfews, travel restrictions,
documentation requirements, the presence of specific security
personnel). On the other hand, this step provides an excellent
opportunity for a general review of the pertinent facts, plus a
review of the understanding that the employee has about his task,
but cannot substitute the employee's necessary preparation for the
task, which should had been given during the training periods.
b) Prepare the employee for the task, giving him specific
instructions and details concerning the task or tasks that he is
expected to carry out and the manner in which he is expected to
carry then out. This constitutes the issuance of orders. The
second step in the orientation is the detailed instruction in
respect to the task itself. The agent must give to the employee
the most precise, exact and specific instructions concerning the
nature of the operation, the form of being carried out and its
1. A prior but flexible planning is necessary to carry out
successfully the employee's orientation, as well as all other
phases of the operation. The appropriate planning requires a logic
sequence during the orientation. This sequence consists of the
a) Initial period of the harmony establishing meeting:
As a rule, this is not the first meeting of the responsible agent with
the employee and, as such, this phase is intended for social
courtesies, for the relaxation of the atmosphere and for the
"harmony" continuation between the agent and the employee.
The agent, although he is concerned with the general welfare of
the employee, must take care to maintain an appropriate
relationship and to maintain control of the meeting. control during
the meeting could be facilitated through a complete preparation on
the part of the agent and his ability to effectively answer any
questions that could be formulated by the employee. This is
extremely important. The employee must respect the judgement and
the opinion of the agent. The inability of the agent to give the
employee complete and credible answers would diminish in part the
respect that the employee has for the agent. This could place in
danger the success of the mission due to lack of control. As a
result of a situation such as this, the employee could criticize
the plan and, if the mission continues, he may not follow the
The agent could use the preliminary phase of the harmony
establishment to review recent information about the activities and
history of the employee, which at times could be related with the
b) Review of the employee's state:
Before the true details of the planned mission could be
revealed, the agent must determine is the employee is competent,
ready and willing to carry out the assigned tasks. The first
matters of interest for the employee are the last information
referring to the employee, his family, his health, his regular
employment ( if he has any), his identity for the job ( if there is
any) and his way of thinking. The agent then must concern himself
if the employee is ready or not and able ( from the security point
of view) to perform the assigned tasks. Finally, the agent must be
certain that the employee is completely trained as it is expected
and that still retains the degree of expertise indicated at the
time of completing his instruction. Upon conclusion of this phase,
the agent must determine if the employee is prepared or not for the
c) General description of the mission:
Once it has been determined that the employee is able,
ready and willing to carry out the assigned- tasks, the agent is
prepared to enter the orientation phase about the "General
Description of the Mission". A preliminary general idea is given
to the employee during this phase about what is expected from him
to do, when it is expected to be done and how it is expected to do
As a rule, this is the first opportunity of the employee to
learn exactly what is expected from him to do. Consequently, the
agent must use this phase to entice comments from the employee
about the convenience, viability and acceptability of each point.
However, the employee must not be given the prerogative to refuse
a task or discard the planned fictitious identity on the basis of
his personal sentiments, likes or dislikes. During this phase the
orientation will be general with respect to the itinerary, the
method of travel, duration of the trip and the staying time in the
zone of the objective, the form and use of funds, documentation,
communications and operational tasks to be carried out. The agent
must be prepared to Answer any critique of the plan and to adjust
the plan if he believes it is necessary.
d) Explanation of Identity.
The orientation is specific and detailed during this
phase. Every type of identity ( having some) Which the employee
Vill be using is explained in detail. Although the fictitious
identity was already taught to the employee during his training
period, it is repeated here; the documents ( having some) will be
introduced as they are needed, and their functions will be
explained in due time. This way, his fictitious identity will be
more clear then if they had been delivered to the employee all
together at the beginning or at the and of the orientation.
e) Instructions about the Itinerary:
At this time, the agent will give the employee specific
instructions about the itinerary of the mission. This will include
instructions referring to the point of entry to the area, the route
and the method of travel, the activity inside the area, and the
route and method of travel from the area at any point of exit
point. These instructions frequently require the use of maps,
drawings, city plans, etc., that may be available. The need of
extensive and detailed maps will depend on the complexity and type
of the mission to be carried out.
f) Specific tasks:
At this point of the orientation, the employee will be given
specific instructions about the support tasks and search to be
In respect to search tasks, the employee will be given a
detailed description and the location of each conformity
requirement with the security limitations and assignment of the
employee; what information wishes to know point by point; the
manner of finding and approaching the place or position; the
desired observation period and the manner of visual or photographic
observation. At this stage the employee must also be warned that
on returning from his mission, must deliver a complete report with
the description of how he carried out the mission, the
effectiveness of the identity and of the documentation, the.
security precautions in effect in the area, etc. Essentially, the
employee must broaden the knowledge that you have pretend to know.
g) Equip the employee what he needs:
During this phase, the employee is given funds to be used during
the mission, clothes, and technical or special devices that he nay
need according to assigned tasks. The type of the employee and the
type of the mission to be carried out shall determine the type or
amount of equipment to be delivered. The employee must have
received prior training and must be able to use properly all the technical or special devices that are delivered to
h) Specific security Instructions:
Before the orientation is concluded, the employee is given brief
and specific instructions about what to do and not to do in
relation with the assigned mission. Some Of these will be a
repetition of the instructions previously given; others given to
employee for the first time, will be instructions that limit
certain activities of the employee, which could be affected by
recently acquired information.
i) Review and inspection of the mission:
At this point, all instructive phases of the employee's
orientation have been completed and the employee has received all
the instructions, as well the necessary guidance to successfully
perform all the tasks that were assigned. This phase is used above
all to review completely all the instructions given the employee
and to test the employee's aptitude to carry out the assigned task.
The agent tries to refute the employee's fictitious identity
through questions about his history and his documentation. Must
observe and correct immediately all the areas in which the employee
evidently shows weakness or in those that he has not clearly
understood like he should. This phase is used then for the final
inspection of all the equipment and material delivered or by
delivering to the employee according to tasks that have been
assigned. The agent as well as the employee must test every piece
and how to use it carefully. Finally, the agent must make certain
that the employee does not carry anything but those that are
absolutely necessary for carrying out the task, which could
compromise the employee or the mission. The time that has to be
used to this "review and inspection" will depend on the complexity,
sensitivity and the type of the mission.
j) Termination of the meeting:
It is now supposed that the employee has been completely
oriented and that he is able to carry out the mission; therefore,
the setting of the date, time and place of the meeting or the
instructions about the meeting is stressed. Alternate plans are
discussed and emergency signals and communication means are
established. Financial and other support matters are determined.
The agent warns the employee of the latent danger carelessness and
inconsistent security imply, having reflected on what could happen
if he relaxes his own technique of personal security, if he is
confiding to people of the place, or if he visits his friends or
parents in the area. On arriving to this point, the orientation
has entirely been completed and the employee is ready for his
mission. The agent must show a sincere interest for the
welfare of the employee. The employee with recognize and
appreciate this, carrying out the termination of the orientation
and send off in constant harmony.
This has been one type of orientation. An exact form cannot be
followed because each orientation is carried out according to the
type of the mission and type of employee.
j) Objective of Post-orientation:
1. The post-orientation objective is to obtain from the
employee the greatest amount of information possible. This begins
immediately after his return. You do not expect an employee who
just returned from a mission to come to you and provide you a
complete report, automatically responding to each one of his
requirements. You must work under the concept that you trained the
employee, prepared him for the mission or oriented him about what
he must look for, assuring him thus that the only pertinent and
useful information is produced, within the framework of the
requirement. In the post-orientation, in addition to the task of
obtaining information, you must also be interested in the morale
and personal problems of the employee. consequently, it is your
duty as agent not only to extract useful information from the
employee when he returns from a mission, but to do it in such a way
that he wishes to remain on the job and progress in the performance
of his duties.
2. In the post-orientation sequence, everything must be
carefully planned. Like in other meetings with the employee, the
agent must be in complete control.
a. Establish harmony:
The is confronted with a person who has been
carrying out a task that demands initiative, ingenuity and exposure
to danger. The employee could be nervous, tired or afraid from
this, and hopes for the proper interest for his physical welfare
and appreciation for having completed his mission, but he must
maintain at all times the proper relation between the employer and
With the aid of the post-orientation plan and
various post-orientation aids, the agent makes every effort to
obtain all the information with respect to the mission. The
employee must narrate the mission from the time of departure until
his return. The agent will formulate pertinent questions in order
to assure a complete and precise information. The sketches, the
maps, the photographs, etc., will identify the area with precision
and will assure a complete report in response to his requirements.
if the employee met physical or equipment elements, he will be
interrogated about the location and circumstances of the gathering.
A special effort must be made to ask the employee about his
ariences in the area in regards to fictitious identity and the
documents he carried. When the time and security allow
arrangements must be made as soon as possible for an additional
post-orientation after a tentative evaluation in order to allow
clarification, explanation or verification of the information
provided during the initial post-orientation.
c. Tentative evaluation:
The agent must study the employee's conduct,
manner of speaking, and make a comparison between the known
information and the version of the employee in order to make a
tentative evaluation of the employees veracity and of his
The employee is paid for his services and his
expenses. Operation expenses are paid in full. Bonus and other
special payments are paid according to plans that you may have
e. Final harmony:
The agent must concentrate in guaranteeing that
future relations with the employee will be harmonious. The
employee must feel that his welfare and his personal problems are
taken into consideration: If arrangements must be made for future
meetings, a date, time and place must be established that is
acceptable to both. It must be remembered that his personal safety
f. Failure of the mission:
Until now we have based our explanation on the
supposition that the mission has been successful. In the event the
employee indicates that he was not able to obtain the information
for which the mission was undertook, it is not expected that the.
agent bounces with happiness, but he should not be critical of the
employee until he knows all the facts. It could very well be that
the reasons for the :failure of the mission were not due to
employee's inefficiency and could prove to be of value for future
operations. Whatever the causes of the failure may be, a
corrective action must be taken.
This has been a type of post-orientation. it cannot be
followed exactly because each post-orientation is carried out
according to type of mission and type of employee.
In order to be successful the agent must plan, train and use his
employees effectively. Each employee must know what he is looking
for, how to look for it and, finally, how to supply the information
once it has been obtained. The agent must keep in mind the reasons
for which the employee was contracted and use him for that purpose.
The agent must be concerned for the safety of the employee but
above all must keep in mind the importance of the mission. He must
constantly emphasize the security to the employee. Before
assigning tasks to the employee, the agent must prepare him and use
plans of the place, timetables and auxiliary means for the
orientation. When he actually assigns a mission to the employee,
there are three steps to approach a field: The orientation
preparation, orientation and post-orientation. These are of vital
importance to the employee as wall as for the agent because if any
of the three is not perfect, the mission and at the same time the
employee will be compromised. Each employee is a considerable
investment of time, money and effort. Do not use them badly, but
remember that they are to produce information for you, and it is
your job to see that they do so. The orientation and post-
orientation determine in great part the value and punctuality of
the information which the employee will obtain for you.
CHAPTER V: PLACEMENT OF EMPLOYEES
After taking the steps to develop all types of employees, you
should keep in mind that there are still areas where there is not
any employee. This could be an area that is outside the control of
the government. This factor perhaps must be due to deficient
communication or transportation means. It could also be an area
isolated by natural barriers, such as dense forests or mountains.
The areas perhaps are not covered by your employees by being
inhabited by persons who stay away or they are against the legal
government. Whatever the reason may be, it is necessary to
recognize the vulnerabilities of the area before the guerrilla
operations. Consequently, immediate steps must be taken to place
employees in these areas. It is possible that it may be already
late and that the guerrillas operate actively in the area, making
thus difficult the placement of employees. Nevertheless, important
questions will emerge that could only be answered through the
placement of employees in the area and within the guerrilla
organization. The sooner the CI agent succeeds in placing
employees in the are which is under the influence of the enemy and
infiltrate them inside his organization, the sooner the government
will be able to neutralize or destroy the insurrection movement.
A. Place of employees in the area.
1. Before the guerrillas take control:
The placement of an employee in an area is much easier
when the guerrillas are not yet well organized. However, once they
are organized in a remote area, they will be expected to discover
the employees that the government may have in the region. The best
way to prevent an insurrection from becoming a threat is to
discover it early. It is necessary to have employees in the entire
country to discover any indication of an insurrection. These
indications without any doubt will provide additional targets,
which will make the CI agent to need additional employees.
The CI agent by necessity must have employees in an area before
the guerrillas appear, in order to discover and neutralize then in
the incipient phase of the movement. Each CI agent must select his
employees and supervisors and train them, in the identification of
signs of insurrection. When these signs emerge, he must anticipate
what could happen and select the most efficient and reliable
employees to operate in the area, even when the guerrillas succeed
to control the area. These employees and
supervisors will need an extensive training if the guerrillas have
already taken control. When there is an indication that the
guerrillas increase their control of the area each time more, the
CI agent may decide to discontinue communications with the
employees and their supervisors for security reasons. While the
guerrillas reinforce their security and acquire greater force, the
CI agent will have to depend on other employees to obtain the
information he needs. The principal task of the supervisors who
already were able to be introduced into the area will be to remain
there, to continue their usual activities accepted by the
guerrillas. When the supervisors decide to approach presumed
employees will come in contact with the agent using the
communication methods agreed beforehand in order to receive
instructions and guidance. The CI agent perhaps decided to make
contact with the employees and their supervisors in order to verify
the effectiveness of the communication means or to give additional
instructions. The CI agent must understand that the supervisors
need time to organize their employees in the are controlled by the
guerrillas. The initial information which some employees will
submit through the communication method agreed before hand should
refer to recently arrived guerrillas and other insurrection
activities. All the employees will render two kinds of services:
The immediate task of sending information about the guerrilla
activities inside the area and the prolonged task of remaining
inactive until they win the confidence of the guerrillas and then
form calls inside the insurrection area. In order to develop these
employees and their supervisors, the CI agent begins his search for
potential employees before the emergence of insurrection signs.
2. During the control by the guerrillas:
The task of placing an employee inside the area during the
organization of the guerrillas is so very difficult before it
The CI agent will have more freedom of action due to the threat
that the guerrillas represent, and it is possible that the
population becomes more hostile. Therefore, he will have to depend
on the employees that he has trained to find potential assistants.
It will be easy to find many potential employees during this
period; for that reason, he must try to train then as soon as
possible. The CI agent looks for individuals who are ready to
infiltrate in the area of the guerrillas and to inform him about
their activities. it is necessary to find other individuals who can
move inside the area without calling attention and to inform about
the guerrilla activities, their camps and their personnel. Must
select those persons who have relatives among the guerrilla
elements and approach them with the objective of making these
relatives to abandon the guerrilla organization. Even when the
activities of the guerrillas shall limit the movement of the CI
agents to a certain degree, the opportunities that these activities
offer to place employees compensate for the growing disadvantages
It is to be expected that the guerrillas are occupied recruiting
members for their organization, and in general, obtaining support
for their movement. Each CI agent could take advantage of these
activities to place employees in key areas inside the environment
in which the guerrillas move. The guerrillas will be alert to any
movement against then on the part of the government and will employ
their own security personnel to protect them. It is of high
importance that the CI agent locate, identify and investigate this
security personnel. The CI agent soaks for these individuals for
two reasons. In the first place, he must locate them in order to
protect the operations of his employees. in the second place, must
find the motivation and the weaknesses of these individuals and to
look for the way to induce then to abandon their organization and
join the cause of the government. Perhaps he will succeed to
persuade the individual appealing to him through his parents,
guaranteeing him his safety and promising him a remuneration. The
principal objective is to persuade these individuals to abandon
their cause without abandoning the place in a way that they could
provide valuable service to the government. The CI agent must also
use his system of obtaining employees find the guerrillas. This
could render valuable service identifying the members of the
guerrilla organization and their targets a-engaging them deceiving
them and at the same time supplying them erroneous information.
This same plan will be successful if the CI agent succeeds in
placing one of his employees in the guerrilla area making him pass
as one of their informants. In all operations of this type, the CI
agent must be assured of the trustworthiness of the employee
maintaining the proper control on the same. He must watch for
employees who could be supplying information to him as well as to
guerrillas at the same time, or to him and alto another government
representative. This type of employee is specially dangerous.
3. After the guerrillas take control:
Placing an employee in an area controlled by the guerrillas is
a real problem. It is very possible that the CI agent has
absolutely no access to the area. In this case, he will have to
recruit a person who travels regularly in the area where the
guerrillas are. This person will need special training, since he
must also learn to locate and possibly recruit and train other
employees inside the area. If he waits until the guerrillas seize
control of an area, the CI agent will find out that he does not
have access to the area, be will rely only on a limited number of
employees and will have to confide to then more information than he
would normally confide to them. An alternative in case of being
able to recruit an employee among the individuals who travel
frequently to the area and remain there. He will have to locate an
individual who is willing to enter an area controlled by the
guerrillas, win their confidence and then begin to supply
information through previously agreed communication methods.
One obvious disadvantage of this type of employee is the time
factor which is critical. it will take much time to train this
employee in order to be able to provide a valuable service.
Another possibility is to infiltrate an employee so that he may
locate potential employees and set up organizations of employees
under his central. The operations of which began after the
guerrillas have seized control will have marked disadvantages from
the beginning. The CI agent will not have direct control over his
employees. Consequentlys he will always have doubts about-their
reliability and veracity of the information they supply. It is
possible many employees could be placed in an area, however, their
value as information suppliers will be limited due to their low
position, the restrictions which impede then from moving from one
place to another, the guerrilla security measures and problems
related with the communication means.
In order to be valuable, the information will have to be timely
supplied. A great part of the information supplied by the
employees in an area which is under control of the guerrillas does
not reach the CI agent early enough to be valuable. The CI agent
must rely on employees in an area before the guerrillas seize
control of the same.
B. Placement of employees in organizations.
1. Before the guerrillas take control.
The CI agent must consider all the organizations as
possible guerrilla sympathizers. He must train and place his
employees inside these organizations so that they may inform him
about their activities and discover any indication of a latent
insurrection. We are especially interested in identifying the
members of the guerrilla command structure, the organic picture and
support base. By infiltrating his employees in different youth,
worker, political, commercial, social and charitable organizations,
we would be able to identify the parents of these guerrilla
elements, their support agents and the sympathizers of the
insurrection movement. This way, the CI agent could train
supervisors to be able then to form calls within the different
organizations. The more employees the government has working
inside these organizations, that much easier will be to control the
threat of a guerrilla movement; to the extend that this grows,
these employees will achieve positions of greater responsibility
and, consequently, will be even more valuable to the government.
2. During the rise of the guerrilla movement:
When the guerrillas are active trying to form their
organization, it will be more difficult for the CI agent to place
his employees in the different organizations. Many organization
will be known as sympathizers of the insurrection movement. The CI
agent must place employees in these organizations for the purpose
of identifying the leaders, cadre personnel and insurrection
Some of these employees perhaps may have to join an
organization, win their acceptance from the other members and
acquire importance in the same in order to be able to provide
information at a higher level. The CI agent must also investigate
other organizations which are not yet under guerrilla control,
since without any doubt these will have members who sym pathize
with the insurrection movement. Therefore, it will be necessary to
identify these persons. The employees should identify the
guerrilla personnel and their security procedures in a way the CI
agent could develop programs to induce them to abandon their cause
or, at least, to neutralize their activities. It will be easy for
the government employees to infiltrate in guerrilla organizations
when they are preparing their movement, since their goal is to
obtain a massive support and accept many recruits in their
organizations. It is necessary that some of these recruits are
government employees who could then render valuable assistance in
the attempt to destroy the insurrection.
3. After the guerrillas have taken control:
Once the guerrillas have seized control of an
organization, it will be very difficult for the CI agent to place
his employees inside said organization. The guerrillas will
intensify their security program for the purpose of protecting
themselves. Even when a government employee joins an organization
controlled by the guerrillas at a low level, he can not only to
identify the leaders of the movement and some of their activities,
but also, what is more important, to be able to supply information
about possible recruits for the government program. The employee
who is able to identify a guerrilla of the high hierarchy who is
unhappy with the insurrection movement will also have identified a
potential employee for the government. Once a security agent of
the guerrilla organization has been identified, he could be forced
or induced to abandon his cause without abandoning his position or
he could be neutralized. If the informants of the guerrillas are
identified they could be supplied false information or be inducedto
abandon the insurrection movement. If the CI agent waits until the
guerrillas have gained control of an organization, he will face
great and more serious obstacles when he tries to place his
He must begin to infiltrate his employees in the organizations
and insurrection movements as soon as it is possible. The sooner
the government is able to discover, locate and identify the
guerrillas, the sooner will be able to destroy the insurrection
C. The Target:
1. GUERRILLA WEAKNESS THAT THE CI AGENT COULD EXPLOIT.
a. OBTAIN RECRUITS.
b. DEVELOP A SUPPLY SYSTEM.
c. ACTIONS THAT IDENTIFY GUERRILLAS.
d. LOCAL ADAPTATION.
The CI agent is in the process of obtaining information
about the guerrillas at all times; before, during, and after these
elements have succeeded to control an organization or an area. As
part of this information, also rests with him to collect
information that will help to place his employees in the guerrilla
organization. During his investigations the CI agent will get to
know that the guerrillas suffer from specific weaknesses which he
could use to infiltrate the organization of said elements. Let's
examine now some of these weaknesses.
2. It is necessary that the CI agent knows exactly how the
guerrillas direct their recruitment program. In the first phases
of the program, when the guerrillas are cementing their base, they
normally are very cautious in the selection of new members. When
they are ready to expand their base and their organization, they
will have to approach many persons for the purpose of obtaining
recruits. The CI agent must know what type of person the
guerrillas prefer, what person they have approached to induce to
join their cause, how they approached the person and how they will
accept a recruit.
3. In addition, the guerrillas frequently develop a supply
system using buyers, carriers and watchers of the supply points.
The CI agent must determine how the guerrillas obtain critical
supplies, who buys or steals these supplies, where they keep them,
and how they transport them.
4. The guerrillas are also subject to be identified as such
because of the actions that some of their activities involve. In
spite of the security measures they take, they are exposed to be
discovered when they recruit informants, buy or use explosives,
circulate propaganda or carry out submissions. Just as they
recruit members to form their organization and their supply system,
they will also have to look for help among the population for these
5. Even when all guerrilla operations are similar, the
guerrillas have to adopt them in each region. The local adaptation
could create additional weaknesses in the guerrilla
organization. Consequently, the CI agent must investigate which
are these weaknesses. If the guerrillas have been away from their
place for a long time, they will possibly try to communicate with
their families. On the other hand, perhaps-their families with try
to communicate with the guerrilla In case of death Of a member of
the family, in important holidays or if they receive news that the
guerrilla is wounded. The guerrilla could lack an indispensable
basic food, which will force him to coma out from his hiding to
look for assistance.
These are examples of some of the weaknesses from which the
guerrillas suffer, which could be exploited by the CI agent.
Therefore, it is not a complete list of all the weaknesses. For
the purpose of infiltrating his employees in the guerrilla
organization, each CI agent must look for and loit the
vulnerabilities of these elements.
D. Placement of an employee:
After locating the guerrilla target, analyze its weak points and
study how to infiltrate one of his employees, the CI agent must
plain in detail the steps that must be taken to place said
employee. As a rule, there are three types of placement:
- Joining the guerrillas
- Remaining in the guerrilla organization
- Promoted in the organization after being recruited as
1. Joining the guerrillas:
a. The employee could appear to be an ideal recruit pretending
to be unhappy with the government and its position. These actions
must appear real and natural, they must be carefully presented in
a way that they call attention to the recruited or agent of the
b. The employee could be ordered to approach an individual that
he knows or suspects that he is a recruiter for the guerrilla
organization. In this case, the employee must show his discontent
with the government. He will have to win the confidence and
acceptance of the recruiter. By being so, the recruiter probably
will approach the employee to propose that he joins his cause.
c. The system of sponsors, checkups and close surveillance that
the recruiters use is an obstacle in infiltrating the guerrilla
organization. This signifies that the employee will probably have
to be recommended by at least two elements reliable to guerrillas,
who act as his sponsors. Then the
employee will probably have to pass a testing period during which
he will be watched and tested in order to determine if his
motivation is truly anti-goverrment and/or pro-guerrilla. Even
after all this, the employee will probably have to submit to a
final examination as positive proof of his loyalty.
d. other ways of joining the guerrillas Will depend on the
employees ability to supply a service or product valuable to
guerrillas. The guerrillas will probably be interested to I the
employee if it appears that he can provide valuable information,
spread propaganda or act as messenger. This interest could also be
developed if the employee would appear to be able of supplying
weapons, mines, explosives, radios or maps. Nevertheless, this
service or product may perhaps be only the first step to infiltrate
the organization. The agent should prevent that the employee's
value to guerrillas as sympathizer or agent lacks in a way that
impedes his infiltration in the guerrilla organization.
e. In this carefully planned and controlled operation, the agent
must discover what other actions are needed to strengthen the
employee's pretention an ideal guerrilla recruit. A vital part of
this program is the educational system tending to indoctrinate and
recompense government employees who inform when a guerrilla element
approaches them and tries to recruit them. The CI agent could
cause the arrest or detention of the employee's parents, imprison
the employee or give him a beating as part of the placement plan of
said employee in the guerrilla organization. Since he will have to
plan carefully all these demonstrations and employ then at the
right time in order to strengthen the employees assertions.
2. Remaining in the organization:
a. The CI agent must always try to locate those guerrillas that
could be recruited in order to remain in the guerrillas as a
government employee. The recruitment task requires careful
planning on the part of the CI agent.
b. The careful interrogation of captured guerrillas are a vital
part of this program. The first program consists in establishing
communication means. therefore, the CI agent must bewilling to run
a deliberate risk letting free a guerrilla prisoner, a parent or a
friend of his in order to establish the links between the CI agent
and the potential employee. This is an indirect and risky way to
develop an employee, and the CI agent must use all resources that
he knows to test, check and control the employee.
c. It is possible that the CI agent to have control over
disillusioned guerrillas who have been captured as terrorists,
agents or informers. They must be pressured to consider and look at
the possibility of persuading the captured guerrilla to work by
returning to join the guerrillas. They must also Consider what
steps must be taken to conceal the capture and freeing of the
potential employee. It would be convenient for the employee to
return to the guerrilla organization as soon as possible after a
pacification or before they become aware that the individual has
3. Being promoted in the ranks of the guerrilla organization:
a. Using employees who have joined, who have returned to join
or have remained in the guerrilla organization, the CI agent could
continue developing the means of placement and access to his
employees. This could be attained increasing the value of the
employee before the eyes of the guerrillas, causing a series of
incidents tending to strengthen the confidence the guerrillas have
in the employee and showing his gift of leadership. He must be
willing to be patient, not to act every time he receives
information from a source who has a higher position and, even more
important, he must maintain control but to limit communications to
b. The CI agent could increase the employee's value
destroying the structure of the guerrilla organization around said
employee. This could be done by means of arrests, executions or
pacification taking care not to expose the employee as the-
information source. It the employee is one of the few survivors,
he could be a key member in a new or different guerrilla
organization. Also the employee's reputation could be strengthened
in this occasion by means of story fabrication, documents and
witnesses, who are not only credible but also difficult to refute,
since there will be very few guerrillas that have survived.
c. A more difficult method of contributing to employee's
promotion in the guerrilla ranks is to assure his success in the
tasks that the guerrilla have assigned him. The employee could
achieve his promotion by accumulating a series of successes.
d. The CI agent must select an individual who has leadership
qualities, quality that will help him emerge from the ranks of the
guerrilla organization. It is less common to find a individual who
has the exceptional ability of being able to deceive a large number
of people by means of a fictitious identity. In many cases, it is
possible that this ability may be fictitious, however, it is
necessary that the individual has certain natural ability.
e. There are other methods of providing external assistance
in order. to assure the promotion of an employee. A method of
achieving this promotion is by influencing an employee who has a
much higher position in the guerrilla organization, another is to
eliminate a potential rival among the guerrillas.
This methods show the value that employees who have infiltrated
the guerrilla ranks have.
It is much more difficult to place an employee in an area or in
an organization after the guerrillas have seized control. The CI
agent must place an employee bef ore, during or after the
guerrillas have succeeded in controlling an area. However, the
sooner it is done, the greater will be its success.
The methods of placing employees in an area or in the guerrilla
organization require a detailed and continuous knowledge of the
personalities and activities of the same. First, the CI agent must
compile the essential information to place his employees through
his own efforts or by means of employees who are already in the
area. Through this compiling, the CI agent should consider
specific targets in-the guerrilla support base, its communication
network, its cadre personnel and its command structure, and must
place employees in all these areas. The next step is to determine
the method of placing an employee in the target. After these two
phases, should be able to take steps to place the employee, whether
he is trying to join, remain or be promoted in the guerrilla
organization. The placement of employees in the guerrilla
organization is the most effective operation even when perhaps is
the slowest. The CI agent must initiate this type of operation as
soon as possible and spend a large amount of time and effort.
CHAPTER VI: EMPLOYEE TRAINING
The agent must consider the mission Of the employee, his history
and the operational situation to determine what type of training he
must receive. For security purposes, the employee must be taught
only those techniques that he needs to know.
A. The employees training consists of three general phases:
1. The essential training which includes security measures, how
to pass and receive information and how to use a fictitious
2. Genaral or basic training which includes map reading, compass
use, observation and description, preparing sketches and submitting
3. The training for a specific mission which includes skills
that an employee must use to carry out specific tasks.
Training is an important means by which the agent can develop
efficient employees and improve the operational situation of the
employee in general.
B. PURPOSE OF EMPLOYEE TRAINING:
1. The purpose of training is to provide the employee the
general knowledge and special skills that he needs to carry out
effective and without risk the tasks assigned to him. The
employee's training reaches its maximum value when this individual
learns and accepts the basic principles of the intelligence
2. Now that the objective is known', we will analyze the
training possibilities. Training must teach the employee the
a. Understanding of the techniques that guarantee the
security of the organization, its members and its activities.
b. The required aptitudes and skills necessary for the
efficient fulfillment of its intelligence tasks.
C. Understanding of his identity and necessary techniques for
all out survival.
3. Training is a continuous process. This never ends. It
begins with the first contact between the employee and the CI agent
and continues until the termination of the employees services.
There are three factors that govern the training program:
The nature of the mission.
The history of the employee
The operational situation.
4. The mission determines but does not limit the type of
training that the employee must receive. If the employee's
responsibilities increase, the need of training him in special
techniques increases proportionately. The training reaches its
maximum value when all the basis principles of the intelligence
activities have been explained, understood and accepted by the
employee. once this has been achieved, the employee could continue
developing and improving through experience.
5. The experience the employee may have had will be a
determining factor in his ability to learn and acquire now skills.
His ethnic history could influence in his attitude and degree of
training he has will influence his ability to acquire new skills.
The experience that be may have acquired in military service thanks
to observation and practice should facilitate his training. The
specialty which he has professionally or as an amateur acquired
will also be important in the training of an employee.
6. The CI agent must plan the training which he is going to give
the employee in accordance with the operational environment. The
factors that must be considered here are:
The availability of the employee to be trained.
The attitude of the persons who live in the area where the
employee is receiving training.
The number of guerrilla elements that operate in the area
where the training is carried out.
C. SECURITY IN TRAINING:
1. Due to importance of training of the employee and due to the
fact that this training must be carried out discreetly, security is
a very important factor. The same as any other intelligence
activity, training must be protected through an appropriate
identity. At times, it will be necessary to use more than one
identity to be able to carry out the training in the most rigorous
secrecy conditions. We see that identities or activities will be
necessary to protect during the training phase.
a. In order to maintain the security of the operation, it will
be necessary to create individual fictitious identities for the
training place or places, the (presumed) employee, CI agent In
charge of training and encounters between him and his employee. It
is possible that other general security factors could emerge that
will have to be considered. However, the most important factor is
the fact that the training. particularly special training, will
reveal to the employee the true aims of the intelligence
organization. It is necessary that every CI agent understands
this, therefore, they will have to take the necessary measures to
assure that the intelligence organization and the CI agent
carefully compare the security with the efficiency and can thus
decide up to what degree will risk this revelation to organization
and its members, given the case that the employee might compromise
or desert to the guerrilla organization.
b. In order to be able to guarantee the security of the
operation, all members of the intelligence organization, including
the employees, must understand all the principles and methods which
they must follow in order to achieve personal security of all and
each one of the members of the intelligence organization.
Therefore, the employee's training must include all the information
which contributes to this understanding. Below, we list the points
that must be emphasized:
1) The individual Identity and its concealment.
2) Surveillance and counter-surveillance techniques.
3) Places and areas that must be avoided. We must understand
here that these are not the same for all places. However, an
analysis of the operational data available will give us the
necessary information to train the employee. For example, it is
possible that the guerrillas control certain roads. Unless these
are specific targets assigned to employee, he must not frequent
4) Persons with whom must avoid contact. here we list the
a) Known delinquents.
b) Politicians whose steps may be watched by the
government or the guerrillas.
c) Persons who are under police surveillance.
d) Any person that could draw the attention of the
guerrillas to the employee.
5) Employee's personal conduct.
Factors that could attract public attention to an
employee and compromise him:
a) An employee who frequents night clubs, bars, etc., and
spends considerable sums of money in these places.
b) An employee who smokes foreign cigarettes and has
luxury articles that link him with other privileges which most of
his neighbors do not enjoy, risks to be discovered
c) An employee who has amorous relations with a jealous
woman could find himself compromised because of that woman.
d) An employee who usually visits places of doubtful
reputation could expose himself or his organization. These places
are frequently raided by the police and this employee could easily
be arrested with the rest of those in the audience.
e) Frequenting gambling houses could also place in danger
the personal safety of the employee
f) Employees must avoid situation that could result in
legal suits against them.
It is important that the employee abstain from taking part in
any activity which brings hi to the attention of the guerrillas in
an insurrection environment, such as sympathy demonstrations in
favor of the government.
6) Employee discipline: Discipline is of vital importance
for the security of the employee as well as of the organization.
An employee who visits a parent or a friend who resides in a
certain area when he has been warned not to do it, not only
compromises himself but he also exposes his organization. It is
necessary to emphasize the importance that discipline has in
intelligence activities during the employee's training. Discipline
is a vital attribute that the employee must have.
D. TRAINING SITUATION:
In the first place we are going to analyze the obligatory
training methods. These include the basic elements that are found
in a civilian university, in an Army services school or in the
training of any employee. These basic elements are the following:
- Training preparation.
- Examination or evaluation
- Critical review.
a. In our situation, the student is the employee and you,
the CI agent, is the instructor. The instructor's preparation is
of high importance since it is necessary that he knows well the
material before he is able to teach the student or employee. And
so our proposal is to begin your preparation; you will acquire more
experience on the subject through practice and continuing to study
this same subject, once a mission has been assigned to him, it will
help him to acquire more rience.
a. The presentation phase is self-explanatory.
Here begins the training itself. You begin by telling the
employee exactly what you want him to learn, explained to him up to
a certain degree because you want him to learn and, possibly,
indicate to him the degree of skill that you expect him to acquire.
Then the subject is presented to your employee, that is, it has to
do with the reading of a letter, a reconnaissance, an observation,
etc. er on we shall explain various ways of doing this.
If possible, give your employee some problems, exercises, etc.,
in order to practice what he has learned. this applies particularly
to subjects like observation, reading of letters, reconnaissance,
operation of equipment, etc.
4. EXAMINATION OR EVALUATION:
Periodically during training, it is necessary to evaluate how
the employee responds to instructions that he has received, his
ability to remember and to understand, and the CI agent's ability
to teach. This evaluation could be carried out by assigning test
missions under supervision, written examinations and questions.
Audio-visual techniques that have had success include, among other
things, the use of models, silhouettes, drawings, tape recorders
and photograms. That is sufficient to say that the weaknesses
which the employee may have shown must be corrected. Must not
accept as fact that something which is simple and clear to you will
also be clear to the employee. The mission will be the decisive
factor. If the employee returns to the mission with the
information that he was sent out to look for, and if he followed
all the orders, his training up to that point has been successful.
If he does not return, it is possible that the CI agent had failed
in his training or that he may have been mistaken in a principle on
evaluating the capacity of the employee.
5. CRITICAL REVIEW:
When an employee returns from a test mission, he will be
subjected to a post-orientation in relation with his mission. This
post-orientation will point out some of the errors that could have
been committed by the employee, or points that require additional
explanation. This is the moment of correcting these errors,
teaching new techniques to the employee and assuring him that he is
going to learn well all that you have taught him. with this
completed, you could continue the teaching with more advanced
E. TRAINING METHODS:
1. The training methods include:
a. Practice exercise.
c. Questions and answers.
2. PRACTICE EXERCISE:
The best way to evaluate the skills of the employee is through
practice. This way, the degree of skills that the employee has
acquired could be determined, and give him additional training if
necessary. In this training method the employee must work
independently to the extend possible. Patience must be shown with
the employee when answering his questions, correct his errors and
repeat the training. It is better to repeat the training as a way
of developing greater confidence in the employee.
Demonstration does not differ greatly from other training
methods. This is not but an explanation, through examples, or a
practical way of showing how something functions or it is used.
This system is generally used together with orientation, frequently
used to questions, and must be complemented with an application of
practice and tests. It is an important part of the training method
which includes orientation, questions and answers. The employee
must always learn how to carry out a task that requires skill, the
CI agent could use the demonstration method. If it was necessary
to train the employee for a series of tasks, it is more convenient
to use learned theories. Must carry out a final demonstration
which covers a series of complete tasks. A demonstration requires
a careful preparation with an exact description of the procedure.
Must determine that the equipment is needed and to test said
equipment before meeting with the employee to begin training.
The demonstration method comprises in determining the purpose of
the demonstration, studying of the tasks or skills that the
employee must learn, prepares the instruction phases in the
corresponding order, deciding which phases could require more
training and testing the meeting with the employee.
4. QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS METHOD:
a. An effective training method is the meeting, which
consists of a controlled discussion where the system of questions
and answers applies. This method could be used to cover a wide
variety of subjects related to training. This system is of special
value since it gives the employee the opportunity to participate in
the training and at the same time allows the CI agent to correct
immediately any error which the employee could commit.
b. It also gives the opportunity to employee to exercise
the mind and show if he has learned the instruction well. However,
this method is more difficult to control and it is much slower. in
addition, the CI agent must be better prepared to answer the
questions and maintain the training under control. He must
carefully analyze all questions that the employee makes no matter
how insignificant they seem. All questions which the employee
makes are important, consequently, must use them to adapt the
training according to employee needs.
5. ORIENTATION METHOD:
The orientation method allows to cover a large amount of
detailed information is a short time. it allows the CI agent to
review and emphasize previous lessons and to give instructions for
future lessons. On the other hand, the orientation has
disadvantages that we must recognize. During the orientation,
there is the possibility of presenting too much material and to
confuse the employee. It is possible that the CI agent is so
absorbed in the explanation of details explaining something that
the employee perhaps does not understand, is not interested or does
not want to apply the theory that is being taught. However, the
orientation is one of the most important methods that the- agent
uses to give instructions to employee when the time is limited and
justly before sending the employee to carry out a mission.
F. APTITUDES THAT THE INSTRUCTOR MUST MEET:
1. There are certain aptitudes that the CI agent must have to be
a good instructor. These aptitudes include:
a. Knowledge of the subject.
b. Knowledge of teaching techniques.
d. Leadership qualities
e. Professional attitude.
2. Discussion of aptitudes:
a. KNOWLEDGE OF THE SUBJECT:
One of the most important aptitudes that he must have is
knowledge of the subject. That is to say, that the instructor must
know wall his subject in order to be able to teach others.
However, the instructor commits a serious error when he takes for
granted that experience by itself provides enough knowledge to
teach a subject without any additional preparation and a continuous
study of applicable material. The instructor must be absorbed in
his subject in order to be able to teach and, naturally, must be
prepared to answer virtually any question on said subject.
b. TEACHING TECHNIQUES:
Knowledge of teaching techniques. The purpose of this
instruction is to introduce the teaching techniques which
definitively is a prior requirement for a good instructor.
The personality of the instructor. You have learned in other
lessons that it is necessary to establish good relations with the
employee and to motivate him to the extend that he complies with
loyalty to the tasks that may be assigned to him. Therefore, it is
essential that the instructor has the type of personality that
allows him to establish good relations with the employee. He must
have confidence in his instructor and in the instructions that he
4. LEADERSHIP QUALITIES:
The CI agent must have leadership qualities in order to be able
to control his employee in an efficient manner. The employee must
submit voluntarily to his authority. This preferable must be
established before beginning training.
e. PROFESSIONAL ATTITUDE:
The CI agent is impartial, firm and kind. He shows a sincere
interest in his employee and in his abilities. The CI agent's
attitude influences greatly the behavior of the employee and in the
success the latter nay have. It is obvious that the instructor's
professional attitude, his knowledge of the subject, and his
dedication to this type of work must be genuine.
G. TRAINING AIDS:
1. Various factors determine the selection of the training
a. The time the CI agent and the employee have available.
b. The type of operation that is going to be carried out.
c. Security of the operation.
The CI agent will select the time and place that they should
meet. Each case and each employee presents a particular problem.
2. Frequently would be necessary to conduct the employee's
training in the area where the guerrillas operate, when this
employee resides inside this area and it is not possible to justify
his absence. In such cases, the training could be carried out in
places such as an abandoned rural area, a hotel room or an
apartment. The security and establishment of an appropriate
identity to justify the meeting are the most important factors that
must be kept in mind in selecting a place that is appropriate for
training. Nevertheless, if the employee resides in a place which
is outside the limits of the area controlled by guerrilla elements,
or if under pretext of a business trip, vacations, etc., the
employee could be " taken away" from the area where he resides, the
training could be carried out with all tranquility in a safe area.
3. In rare occasions training is conducted in the formal
environment of a classroom. The training aids could be effectively
used in an informal setting always taking the pertinent security
measures. The training equipment consisting of photographs, models
and booklets that help to identify the objective could be prepared
by the CI agent. If the mission demands it, technical equipment
such as photographic cameras and recording devices could be added.
4. A warning for the instructor:
Must not show the employee exactly the objects or distinctive
characteristics about which he must inform, but should show him
objects of the same type which the employee could recognize and
inform in that respect.
5. Some employees affirm of having seen exactly what has been
shown to then during training, if the CI agent is not careful. to
prevent this from occurring. scale models of border obstacles and
defense models greatly contribute to lessen the psychological
impact of these barriers in the mind of the employee. At times is
not easy to obtain appropriate training aids; however, with a
little effort, initiative and ingenuity satisfactory training aids
could be obtained. The CI agent must be careful in concealing the
training aids when he goes to the training place and when he
returns from it. He must carry then with much dissimulation, such
as a traveling bag bought locally or in a box which does not draw
the attention. When the employee knows what is expected from him,
understands the mission that he is going to carry out, has overcome
the fear of the unknown, then he will be able to carry out the
mission serenely and with success.
H. LEARNING PRINCIPLES:
The CI agent must know the basic learning principles in a way
that he can use them to his own benefit during the employees
The first and probably the most important of these principles is
motivation. The employee had some motive which drove him to accept
to work without or your organization. However, this does not end
here. You must do everything possible to maintain and if possible
to increase the motivation of the employee.
That is not an easy task, nevertheless, it is an essential
factor and an absolute prior requirement for the future success of
the employee. It is necessary to motivate again the employee in,
each opportunity. Remember that:
a. Frequently the employee himself does not really know what
is that drives him to do certain things.
b. It is rare that a person is driven by a single motive; the
majority of persons have various motives that drive them to do
certain things or to act in a certain way.
c. It is not important what the reason may be, make certain
of having identified it and use it advantageously.
d. If you recognize certain powerful reasons that motivate an
employee, develop them, making certain that the employee does not
understand that you have analyzed him.
The instructor could evaluate the present political situation to
motivate many of his employees. For that reason me must keep up to
date with the political events reading the governmental and anti-
governmental papers. Keeping informed of the situation, the
instructor could initiate his training session citing the damage
that the guerrilla elements are causing to the country.
The majority of the employees with whom you deal will have
personal reasons, such as monetary remuneration, protection of
their families, etc., however, it you convince these employees that
they also are contributing to the welfare of their country, your
operation will have greater success.
Some ways to motivate an employee during training are:
1) Demonstrating the need for training:
Include valid reasons for which your employee must receive specific training. Emphasize the fact that his future success and perhaps his life could depend on his training.
2) Maintaining the employee's interest:
Make use of your personality, show enthusiasm, examples and
illustrations. While more interesting is the material that the
employee would learn quickly.
3) Encourage the employee to excel during the first stages of
The desire to excel is a strong force that drives the employee
and strengthens him during training. During the first stages of
the training program give the employee the opportunity to show his
aptitude for observation and recognition of objects. Assign him
simple missions which, if successfully completed, will increase his
confidence in himself and in you.
4) Recognizing his merits:
Mention the good points of some work which the employee may have
done. Begin with a favorable comment and then suggest different
ways of improving his work.
This simply signifies giving the employee an incentive which
stimulates him to work and indicate to him the degree of expertise
that you expect him to acquire.
Should offer the employee the opportunity to think, speak, write
and resolve problems during training.
This principle is sufficiently easy to adapt immediately to
training. Present to employee material such as he will use in
practice. Assign him simple test missions to give the employee a
real idea of the task that he will have to face.
Training is complete when the employee has acquired the
attitude, appreciation, interest, ideals and habits that would
allow him to apply correctly what he has been taught. Also he must
have acquired drive, initiative and ingenuity. All these qualities
are not directly taught but are rather acquired as a result of a
program of fruitful training.
I. ELIMINATION OF OBSTACLES
1. Each employee will react differently to discipline that he
has to be subjected and it is possible that many of them will
appear apprehensive. Perhaps he will begin worrying by the nature
of the task that will be assigned to bin, for the security of his
family or by the type of compensation that he will receive. The Ci
agent must try to dispel these fears shoving the employee that
these obstacles are known, that he can overcome then and that the
training which he will receive will help him eliminate the
operational barriers easily. Every employee will have doubts and
fears, which the CI agent will have to take into consideration and
try to remove in a way that the employee can concentrate in his
2. A step towards the solution of these difficulties is the
development of a wall defined training plan based on the employee
abilities, that will help him perform successfully the tasks
assigned to him. The aptitude which the CI agent has shown during
training will contribute to develop the employee's confidence. The
physical distractions, such as deficient lighting, will impede
training, consequently, it will be necessary to eliminate them by
selecting an appropriate training place. in addition, must remember
to bring to training place and offer to employee some refreshment
for the purpose of breaking the tension and begin the training in
a cordial environment. Must be alert at all times and observe all
reactions of the employee during training.
3. Other factors which the agent must keep in mind is that, it
is natural for the employee to appear reluctant to accept what is
new for him or which will force him to change his habits. One of
the principal causes of this attitude is that the employee perhaps
is under the impression that the agent is determined to change his
way of living. This obstacle could be overcome by placing on
himself a strict discipline and limiting the basic training points
to some simple problems, must not burden the employee with
unnecessary details. Also, at times the entire training could be
developed around the basic idea that the employee-. will go to
places that he is used to visit and that he will do nothing out of
the ordinary. The only difference is that he will observe and
report in that respect.
4. The questions which reflect doubts, fears or insecurity of
the employee must be answered frankly and sincerely as in may be
possible; but above all, must not make promises that cannot be met.
Proceeding with impartiality, understanding and courtesy, you could
exercise great influence in the future success of the employee.
J. TRAINING PHASES:
1. Many of the tasks assigned to employee could consist in
actions tending to preserve the individual security and of the
call, to develop secret communications and to live a fictitious
identity. These tasks are an very important part of the employee
Is mission, just as it is the collection of information. Also, the
employee could be assigned a special operational mission such as to
locate, investigate, recruit and train other employees. The
employee could also contribute to the operation, acting as support
personnel or as supervisor. All these tasks require training and
represent different problems to CI agent in charge of training.
2. In a general way, the training could be considered in three
PHASE i: Immediately after the employee agrees to work for the agent.
PHASE 11: The general preparation for the mission.
PHASE iii: special preparation for the mission.
a. PHASE I: is that in which immediately after the employee
agrees to work. It consists in pertinent instructions to
communication means which must be established; the need to take
security measures; and the identity that must be established to
justify the concerted meetings between the employee and the CI
b. PHASE Ii: The employee is prepared for the mission. He
is not informed about the nature of the mission, but he is rather
given instructions about all the subjects that he must know. The
communication means, security measures and identity are explained
in detail and are adapted to the individual.
Then he taught subjects of general nature such as:
1) Map reading
2) Use of compass
3) Preparation of sketches
4) Observation and description.
5) Annotation of information.
c. PHASE III: It is a special training pertaining to the
mission. It includes technical training in any pieces of equipment
the mission demands. This could be a vehicle, a photographic
camera, or a radio apparatus. The employee will also
receive more specific instructions about security, communications
d. COMPLETE DISCUSSION OF THE THREE PHASES OF TRAINING:
1) PHASE I:
In this phase security is very elemental. He has agreed to work
even when he does not know the dangers to which he exposes himself
if his activities were discovered by the guerrilla elements. One
must keep in mind the existence of these dangers and also make him
understand that he will not be of any value for the CI agent if the
guerrilla elements discovered his activities. Should be explained
to him that the least carelessness on his part could betray him,
that the best way to protect.himself is to act naturally, not to
change his normal routine of his daily life and to avoid drawing
attention, and he must not discuss with any one , not with his
wife, friend, or with his parents, his true relationship with the
CI agent. After it is ascertained that he will follow to the
letter these simple instructions he will not run any danger and the
mission will be successful. This training phase is presented at
the same meeting in which it was proposed to the individual to work
for the government. The pertinent indoctrination to security
begins as soon as the individual agrees to work.
The identity for the recruitment meeting will have already been
established and, as part of the security training, will be
explained to employee that he must act naturally. However, the CI
agent must give a simple explanation about he identity of the
meeting in case and it is interrupted by strangers, public
officials, guerrilla elements, friends or relatives. The employee
must indicate the identity he will use for the following meeting
and, according to aptitude of the individual, for the subsequent
meetings. However, if the employee is assigned a special mission
which requires a fictitious identity, only then the identity of the
following meeting will be established. The pertinent instructions
to the identity are given to employee as part of phase I are very
simple and are related with his true identity. The pertinent
training to security and to identity are closely related.
Phase I of the training pertinent to communication means is
presented at the end of the meeting dedicated to recruitment of the
employee. This phase consists simply in the instructions that are
give for the purpose of establishing the future meetings. it is
explained to employee that he will communicate in a certain
prescribed manner for the purpose of setting the time and Place of
the next meeting. The CI agent must also keep in mind the security
of the mission, therefore, he must not reveal to employee more than
he really needs to know.
2) PHASE ii: This phase begins after the employee has bean
recruited and is qualified in those skills that could be used in
more than one mission. This phase could be considered as a general
training which covers those basic skills which the CI agent
considers necessary for the collection of information. The tasks
that have to be carried out shall determine which type of training
must be given to employee. For example, a guide does not need
assistance in the technique of observation and description,
however, he needs training in the techniques necessary to avoid the
security measures of the guerrilla elements.
The lecture and the use of maps is one of the most important
training which the agent could teach the employee in phase II. The
purpose of the map in to allow / discover the surface of an area
with all his principal characteristics such as the ones that the
employee will see on the terrain. When it is correctly used, the
map could indicate exactly the distances, places, elevations, best
routes, the principal terrain characteristics and information about
concealment and cover for the use of the employee.
The employee normally will be able to determine his own location
with a relatively small adjacent area or in relation to roads,
paths or villages through where he usually travels in his daily
activities. This ability is not always adequate for presentation
of information, because the employee must be able to locate in a
uniform and precise manner different points in any part of his
area. In addition, will be able to sue the maps to identify places
which are not easy to relate with characteristic points of the-
known terrain. The most easier maps to train the employee are
those obtained locally from private companies. The training in map
reading is conducted gradually until the employee learns thoroughly
this technique. once the employee recognizes well the surface of
the terrain, he will be able to identify any movement or activity
which is carried out in said terrain. The simple knowledge of the
location of an object, the distance and elevation that it is
located, and the shape and decline of the terrain will have little
value for the employee unless he knows well the direction in which
could travel or the direction in which the guerrillas have moved.
The training given an employee on raap reading also includes
instructions how to trace hastily a topographic map of an area, a
road or the position of the guerrillas. The employee could be
taught to trace a single line to indicate the horizon Just as the
employee sees it from his observation point. Must insist that the
employee include in his sketch characteristic points of the terrain
easy to recognize in a way that the area could be found on the map.
Phase II could also include the use of compass and the
preparation of outlines. This is not a difficult task, therefore,
the employee must progress rapidly. This training is offered for
a followup orientation of a practice exercise. A great part of the
practice that will be needed to acquire the experience in map
treading and the use of the compass, he could carry out on his own.
Therefore, this in an advantageous factor for the security of the
The art of observation and description is another subject that
could be taught to employee as part of phase 11. In daily life, a
person usually is aware of what happens within the small circle of
his vision and he is only aware of what happens outside this circle
when something exceptional draws his attention.
Inconsistent observation habits result in incomplete and
confused impressions. The conscious observation allows the
employee to recognize, record and report objects and persons in a
way that the information which he submits to CI agent will be
clear, complete and concise. Teach the employee to acquire new
observation habits in a way that he could describe in detail the
objects and persons; direct his attention to perceive the
exceptional together with the routine, and to develop new skills
and observation techniques. Both must know the obstacles which
limit the employee's vision. The employee must learn to eliminate
these obstacles using patrol techniques to a better observation
Together with the observation and description techniques the
employee learns to calculate the time and distances. Frequently
this will be difficult in areas where the activities are not
carried out at specific times. However, in order to be able to
submit correct reports, it will be necessary to train the employee
in these skills. If he has access to a wrist watch or any other
type, he could be taught to read it if it were necessary. He could
be provided a wrist watch provided it fits with his identity. The
employee must be able at least to estimate the time making
reference to a given ==ant, for example "immediately after siesta",
or " exactly at sunset". The majority of the employees could learn
to calculate distances and sizes, making again reference to known
things. The agent could determine more or less the size of a
vehicle belonging to guerrillas if the employee explains that this
was " so high like a fully developed steers and so long like two
completely developed steers". It will be necessary to-repeat the
training and submit the employee to numerous tests until he learns
to be exact in his calculations.
The observation and description and calculation of time and
distances techniques are some of the most basic skills. They could
be carried out with a minimum of risk, since they do not require
any special equipment and practice exercises could be used in which
the employee learns these skills as soon as possible. The employee
will use all techniques that he has been taught, consequently, they
must not be dealt as separate subjects, but rather must be
integrated to form a complete training program.
Phase II probably would also include the preparation of
sketches. The sketch consist in representing correctly ideas in
graphic form without the use of special instruments. The employee
uses the sketch to make certain that what he is describing is
understood, therefore, his sketches must be precise, exact,
proportionate and easy to understand. The use of sketches tends to
make the observer more methodical, since he is looking carefully
for correct details to copy on paper and for that his verbal
explanations will have even more value. For the preparation of
sketches he only needs a minimum amount of equipment. These
material are easy to obtain in almost any part of the world and
they are easy to hide. Almost any type of paper can be used, but
if it was necessary a piece of cloth, an animal skin, and even the
bark or the leaves of certain types of trees could be used in its
place. The sketching instrument could be a ball-point pen, a
pencil, a piece of wax, a piece of chalk or even a piece of wood
with the tip burned. The most simple type of sketch if the lineal
sketch that way the terrain is divided or the object is so tall.
This simply is a map/sketch which describes the contours, the
borders, etc., to that a legend is added for the purpose of
explaining the objects represented and the dimensions and
directions which appear in the sketch. Because the artificial
objects are designed according to geometry rules, some of these
basic rules could be to employee in order to be able to draw a
sketch. It is not necessary that he is an artist. Even when it
does not serve any other purpose, the sketch serves to retain and
remember what has been observed in the past. However, the employee
must acquire sufficient skill in a way that his sketches are easy
Just like the other general subjects that are taught to employee
as part of phase 11, the tracing of sketches could be combined with
other subjects during practice exercises. This serves especially
well for sessions in which observation and description is
practiced. Due to the fact that this subject is simple, it could
be taught with sufficient security and be practiced without
The security in phase II is an important factor. In phase I it
was simply explained to employee that eh must act naturally and he
was warned not to confide to anyone., The security in phase II is
more complex and it begins in the meeting following the
As we know, the major part of training during phase Ii provides
the employee the general skills that he needs to carry out his
task. The security training which the employee receives during
phase 11 must provide him with the necessary knowledge to protect
his training sessions. The training in general which the employee
will receive pertaining to reading of maps, observation and
description of objects and parsons, the preparation of sketches,
etc., could change his normal living pattern. Therefore, the CI
agent must teach him different ways of giving excuses of
convenience to friendss and to family to justify his absence during
these training sessions. These explanations must be logical and
simple. The emplouyee must learn how to determine if they are
watching him, following or investigating him and what measures be
must take. He must not only have an explanation to justify the
interviews which be will frequently have, but also the trips that
he will have to make as part of the training program. Another
factor that must be taken into consideration is that he must have
a logical explanation to justify the new skills he is learning, or
must abstain from showing them. For example, if you have taught an
employee how to tell time, he must fabricate a logical story to
explain where, how and why he has acquired this ski11 or must
continue pretending that he does not know how to tell time.
Showing new skills without any doubt will draw attention to
employee, which could expose his value as a discreet observer. The
remuneration of the employee, according to prior arrangement with
the same, could be made during the training sessions. The employee
must be warned not to spend his money in a way that draws
attention. Any equipment given to employee as part of his training
must be protected either through a logical explanation or be kept
hidden. Even such simple things like a notebook and a pencil could
cause problems it the employee was not accustomed to using these
material. The equipment acquired locally in most cases would pass
unnoticed much easier than equipment acquired at a distant place.
An important factor regarding security training is the social
position of the employee. A simple farmer who is recruited and
trained in a rural area to work in the same area would only need to
know the basic principles of security training. His living pattern
would change so little after being recruited, that would only be
necessary to explain to him that he must not confide to anyone the
information he has.
However, there are vcases in which the employee could occupy a
high position in an organization which maintains strict security
measures. Being so, this employee needs much more training about
security in order to protect himself and to be able to carry out
his mission. The training given this employee will have to be
adequate to his mission and to security measures that the
Phase I pertaining to communications mainly consisted in
instructions about how to coordinate the next interview. Phase II
begins with a session following the recruitment. This is a general
instruction about communications which includes the communication
means that they use during the training period and the
communication means that will be used in the course of the mission.
The communications they will maintain during this period will
consist in their greater part in instructions on the part of the CI
agent to employee. Nevertheless, it will be necessary to establish
a system through which the employee could communicate with the CI
agent in case of emergency. Three channels of communication are
The normal channel: Will be used to attend to normal problems
and it is the one that will be used more frequently.
The secondary channel: Will be used in case the normal channel
cannot be used.
The emergency channel: it is used when the normal channel as
wall as the secondary are not adequate.
In the case this system of three channel communications is used,
it must be explained to employee that eh must know how it functions
and how to use it. This system will be modified as it may be
necessary in the course of the mission. If its functioning Is
understood at the beginning of the training will be adapted to
changes that may occur and the training period will be carried out
with greater security. These periods include personal interviews.
The CI agent will determine the time and place of these interviews.
It is very possible that these. interviews could be conducted at
the same time and in the same place during the training periods.
This will depend on the situation and the identity that is used to
During the second part of phase II pertaining to security, the
employee receives general information about the communication that
he will need to complete the mission. He must know the three
channel communication system and the diverse signals that are used
to activate each system. If the conditions allow it, he will be
given instructions about the use of a telephone that could be used-
to set up a personal interview, which normally must not be used to
transmit intelligence information, since it must be assumed that a
telephone conversation could be intercepted. If the employee has
to use the communication devices during the fulfillment of his
mission, it should be explained to him which they are and how they
must be used. In order to. prevent operational elements from
establishing direct contact, a secure hiding place is designated
before hand where a person deposits the information or material to
be picked up by another person. Perhaps the employee may have to
try to deal with a person who keeps the information temporarily or
the material deposited by another person and subsequently is picked
up by another, or with a messenger, that is to say, any individual
who knowingly, carries messages and material between two points or
individuals. In these cases, it is possible that the same employee
is assigned the mission of custody and messenger, for which the
major part of phase II of his training will deal about this aspect
of the instruction. If his mission demands that the employee knows
an address of convenience, an address in which the custodian could
receive a form of public communication ( letter, post card,
telegram, etc.), and keep it to be picked up or sent to CI agent or
to a specific individual, he must receive instructions how the
convenience address operates and how it will be used. The employee
must know the signals that
are used to set up the interviews. A signal is a signal agreed
between two individuals to indicate a secret understanding. For
example, you have sat up with the employee that along a specific
road through which he travels every day to go and come from his
jobp he must look for a mark on a certain rock that is at the side
of the road. Having a mark, that would signify to employee that
there will be no interview. These signals are explained to
employee in order to be able to use them during training and also
later on during the operation.- Just as it was previously
explained, th a greater part of phase 11 pertaining to
communications will deal with those means that the employee will
use during training or that general information about
communications which he will need to carry out the missions that
are later one assigned to him.
Nevertheless, one must keep in mind that some employees have the
mission of "being converted" to an address of convenience, a
custodian or a messenger, and therefore, the greater part of their
training evolves around the specific mission they will have to
carry out. The amount of training which the employee receives
about any subject will depend on the nature of his mission.
Phase II pertaining to the identity will consist in its major
part in teaching the employee the art of fabricating explanations
to justify his frequent interviews with the CI agent, trips that he
makes to go to interview places or practice exercises. It is also
necessary to give a convincing explanation about the acquisition
and use of any equipment that the employee could receive as part of
his training. For example, he could give as excuse that he is
planning a trip to justify the acquisition of a map, or a gift on
the part of the government to residents of a village would be a
good explanation in regards to paper and pencils that may have been
received. certain recently acquired skills could be difficult to
explain. In this case, the employee must be warned to refrain from
displaying said skills. Perhaps a parallel training program could
be established tending to conceal the true nature of training. The
remuneration which he receives should also be accompanied with a
credible explanation. In the instruction whi ch we give about the
remuneration of employees, we shall discuss this problem in detail,
however, one must keep in mind that the employee will not be of any
value if he draws attention due to sudden increase of his income.
In the first place, phase II pertaining to identity will consist
in providing the employee an identity that he could use during
training. Nevertheless, if he has been assigned a mission that
requires a fictitious identity, he will receive a more detailed
training and will be prepared for said mission. Likewise, some
employees are promoted to supervisors and, therefore, will need a
much more detailed training on the use of a fictitious identity. we
emphasize again, the amount of training that an
employee receives in this aspect of training will depend on the
nature of his mission.
3) PHASE III:
After the employee has been recruited, he receives basic
training, that is phase 1, of the pertinent security training, the
communication means and use of identity. From the moment he is
recruited until he is ready for his mission, the employee receives
a general training of instruction, which will provide him the basic
knowledge that he will use in the fulfillment of his mission. When
the CI agent thinks that the employee is ready, then phase II of
training will begin, during which he learns specific details that
he will need to complete his mission. Phase III includes not only
the orientation required for a particular mission, but also any
special skills which he employee needs even. when the need is
possibly for one time.
This phase could include instruction in any type of technical
equipment which he will need to carry out a specific task. It is
possible that he may have to take photographs of specific
installations, group of people or equipment.Therefore, he will have
to be taught how to use a photographic camera. Perhaps the mission
requires to drive a vehicle, if that is so, it is necessary to
learn this technique. What he must kept in mind is that the
employee has to use specific skills many times, he must receive
instructions in that respect as part of phase 11. If this skill is
mainly needed for a single case, it is during phase III when he
acquires this technical knowledge.
Just as you will remember, an orientation could be considered as
a training extension of the employee that includes specific skills.
Every employee receives an orientation before he is sent to carry
out a mission. This orientation is part of phase 111, since it
consists in specific instructions. This segment of training
includes also a period of questions and answers during which the
employee could clarify any doubts he may have.
Phase III pertaining to security is more precise. The employee
is told that he must not reveal his mission or his relationship
with the CI agent to anyone. He is also taught how he must conduct
himself during the fulfillment of his mission. He learns all
pertinent details about security around his objective and the best
way to avoid being discovered by guerrilla security elements. If
the employee learns to handle en equipment he must also learn what
security measures must be used to protect himself and the
Phase III pertaining to communications includes those specific
details that the employee needs to know in order to be able to
receive instructions on the part of the CI agent and to
transmit information. Radio communication allows for the quick
transmission of information and adds an element of control on the
information in inaccessible areas to the agent. If the employee
has to use a radio receiver as part of his mission, he will receive
instructions in the use of this equipment during this phase. At
the same time, the employee could be taught the use of invisible
ink and code messages in the event there is need to use them. The
signals, communication devices and the means to transmit messages
which the employee will use are carefully reviewed here. When the
employee understands his mission, the agent must make certain that
he will be able to establish a means of communication with the
former in order to be able to receive the information that he is
Phase III pertaining to the identity includes those aspects of
training which he needs for the collection of information. Perhaps
he needs an identity to travel to area of operations and another
different identity while he is inside this area. He could assume
an entirely different identity to communicate with the agent. In
many cases, the identity which the employee received during phase
II will continue, modified only a little. The true identity is
usually best and will require few changes. Naturally, he must be
informed about the story invented to explain any equipment that the
employee could receive for his mission. in some cases, the story
will not be effective and the equipment must be concealed. The
training about the identity of phase III could be no more than a
revision of the identity with the employee to make certain that he
understand why all these aspects are necessary.
We have covered various training fundamentals of the employee,
the learning principles, the five training phases, the dissuasive
factor to disseminate the learning and how to overcome them, and
how to apply all this in your case as instructor of the employee.
We have explained the three training phases of the employee which
involve security, communications and identity, and various other
subjects about which the employee could be taught. To train an
employee in the field, the techniques will be and must be different
than those of the classroom used here. The training will be
individual, this will be carried out under discreet conditions and
will not be uniform, but is adopted to individual employee.
The most important technique used during training of the
employee is that of maintaining harmony with learning. A good
employee must be duly motivated. An unsatisfied employee is a
considerable security risk. In order to motivate another person,
one must motivate himself. In order to train another person, one
must know the subject. In order to establish and maintain harmony,
the employee must have confidence in his instructor. A good agent,
who wishes to be a good instructor, must be sincere and be able to
convey this sincerity to employee.
CHAPTER VII: COMMUNICATION WITH THE EMPLOYEES
Until now we have dealt. with the need to deal with the employee
and the general importance that the mission has that they ]must
perform in the intelligence effort of the government. WE have
discussed the factors that determine the selection in the
recruitment of a presumed employee, inciting an the access that he
should have to information that we wish.
This chapter deals with communications with the employees. An
employee could have the best access possible to information we
wish, but if he is not able to communicate with the agent to
transmit it the operation does not have any value. The ideal is
that the agent comes into direct contact with the employee, but
there are times they have to do it indirectly.
A. THREE BASIC CONDITIONS:
1. There are three basic things that the agent must keep in
ind when he considers to communicate with the employee, these are:
Control, continuity and security.
a. Control: The agent is responsible to plan how the
communication with his employees is to be carried out and to test
and guarantee that this is constant. Taking into consideration the
security of his employees, determines the time, place and
circumstances in which contacts will be made. Does not come into
contact with his employees without prior specific approval or a
precise order from the control agent. Before using the system,
must also consider carefully the type and method of material
b. Continuity: The flow of information, instructions and
material must be continuous. Every effort possible must be made to
prevent interruptions in intelligence operations. The information
does not have any value it it is not complete, clear and timely.
The operational condition could limit the amount and variety of
communication channels available.
For better results, three separate communication channels must
be established. That is, the normal, the secondary and the
emergency. The normal channel will be used to attend to regular
demands and it is the one that is frequently used. The secondary
will be used in case the normal cannot be used. The emergency will
be used to transmit information or material when the normal as
well as the secondary are not sufficient. This could be the case
if the normal channel as well as the secondary fail at the right
time or in case that very important information , such as an alert
, have to be transmitted. In the case of an imminent attack or an
order to cease operations to a compromised employee. The emergency
channel could necessarily be the most dangerous, however, it must
be the most secure and quick to the extend possible.
c. Security: In intelligence operations we must consider
the internal security as well as the external. Each member must be
separate from other members in what pertains to knowledge of
operations in general. members are given only that information of
the operation which they need to perform the tasks assigned to
then. The information which is transmitted through communication
channels must be sealed and concealed in a manner that it is
impossible to be read by the members who handle the message. Must
use special envelopes, wax seals and other techniques to discover
if the message has been compromised. Whenever possible must be
materially hidden. The best defense if to prevent any stranger
from finding out that some communication is established or will be
B. PERSONAL MEETING:
Any face to face contact between members of an operation is a
personal meeting. This is the most common method of communication.
Some of its advantages and disadvantages are:
a. A greater exchange of information and a better
understanding could be achieved in less tim
b. Questions and answers could be made.
c. A personal relationship is developed which helps the mood
of the employee.
d. It is the best method to train or give specific
e. The attitude, veracity and physical and mental condition
of the employee could be evaluated.
f . Offers the opportunity to exchange information, money or
a. Others could associate them if they are regularly seen
b. There is the possibility of falling into a trap if the
employee is under the control of the guerrillas.
c. Could become very intimately compromised in personal
problems of the employee.
3. Before authorizing a personal meeting or participating in it,
the advantages and disadvantages of the same must be weighted.
Security must be the principal consideration. How could a meeting
take place in a protected area and safe manner? What is the
objective of the meeting? Could this objective be achieved in some
other way? What possible danger is there of compromising the
employee of the CI agent? If after this operational analysis it is
determined that the personal meeting is necessary, must begin to
plan it carefully.
4. The personal meeting could serve as communication channel,
whether normal, secondary or emergency. In considering personal
meetings, the plans must include different contact places,
different times and the procedures that must be used to establish
new contacts. In more than one occasion the interested parties
have not been able to come to the place or at the previously agreed
time, thus it is necessary to anticipate this in the preparations
that are made. If the meeting is for training purposes of the
employee, the CI agent must make certain that he has all the
instructions aids available at the meeting place. These aids could
be maps, photographs, etc.
5. The place in which the meeting will be determines the
finality of the meeting, the operational identities of the
individuals that have to meet and the situation tactic ( i.e.
barriers through which the employee has to pass, combat zones and
areas under guerrilla control). For short meetings, any place,
whether under a roof or in the open air, serves the purpose, but
for extended meetings or for post-orientation sessions. a place
under a roof will be more convenient. many times, when the employee
is a member of the guerrilla movement, the CI agent has to be
careful of keeping the employee outside the area where he could be
recognized. If the employee has to travel long distances to the
meeting place, arrangements will be made to provide him temporary
lodging and food in a safe place. This place must not be the same
in which the CI agent is.
6. The fundamental consideration on planning a meeting is the
time that the employee will be available. If the employee is a
member of a guerrilla movement, his activities must be correspond
to those of other members. He may not be able to slip away, or to
remain away, when it is needed, or during the desired time. The
protection of darkness could improve the security of the personal
meeting in cases where one of the two members could be recognized
by the local,population. Other points to be considered are the
availability of transportation means, the curfew regulations and
the weather prognosis.
7. It is necessary that both parties be on time when there are
meetings in order to avoid arousing suspicions by being wandering
around the area In which the contact has been established. Must
have a plausible reason for the individual to be in a particular
place at a prescribed time. When the CI agent does not arrive on
time to meetings, the employee tends to be overcome with fear and
could cancel the meeting or any future contact. Be punctual.
8. The number of contacts that operational personnel kames will
be determined by the operational needs, the security and other
factors. Security requires us to maintain a minimum number of face
to face contacts in order to avoid the danger of being discovered.
However, the operational need could require frequent meetings if it
is to complete our mission.
There is no established formula for meetings. The CI agent and
his control agent have to consider each case individually.
Regardless what it is decided, patterns of action must be avoided.
For example, must not always meet-in the same place.. This would
establish a pattern that could be of interest to strangers.
9. The members who participate in personal meetings do so
knowing that there is a certain degree of risk or danger. The
persons going to meet must take great care on going to the place of
the meeting and or coming from it in order to diminish this risk.
They must stop and make certain that they are not followed and to
know what course of action to take in such cases. The best place
for a meeting is one where would be difficult to be followed and to
observe but which allows a clear field of vision to those who are
taking countersurveillance measures. The place must be one from
which the surroundings could be adequately watched. Surveillance
must not be neglected even when the meeting is taking place. If
the meeting is taking place under a roof, keep the voices low and
if possible to play the radio or the record player. This will make
it difficult for the guerrillas to use technical radio listening
devices and could impede those who are listening concealed from
hearing the conversation. The planning of any personal meeting
must include escape measures in the event the meeting is
discovered. The members who attend the meetings must know paths,.
roads, and other local entrances and exits. If the meeting is held
under a roof, make ceratin that the employees know where the doors,
the windows and any other escape routes that could be used are.
Ascertain beforehand that all escape measures have been well
considered and that the employees know what they have to do in case
of emergency. Procedures must have been anticipated to establish
new contacts in case that such an emergency occurs. When a meeting
is held with an employee whose loyalty is doubtful or whose actions
could be suspicious, the CI agent must have armed assistants posted
in hidden places close to the place of the meeting to help him if
that is necessary. The planned precautions, not known to the
employee, are a good guarantee against kidnapping or capture on the
part of the guerrillas. Exercise care when dealing with employees
who carry weapons and must not allow to be placed at any time in a
situation in which could be intimidated.
10. If for any reason a person does not come to a planned
meeting, it should be considered to have the meeting held at a
different time and place previously arranged. The Ci agent and the
employee must agree that if for some unforeseen reason lose
contact, both would come on a certain day or days to a specific
place. This is known as an "arranged meeting". There the one who
did not come to prior meetings indicates with a signal if he can
approach or not. If the indication is affirmative, the meeting is
11. A signal is a gesture, symbol or word arranged between the
individuals to indicate a secret understanding. For example, you
have agreed with an employee that he must look for a rock under a
specific tree along a specific road that he takes every day to go
and come from work. The presence of the rick signifies that they
have to need that evening at a place agreed beforehand. If he does
not find the rock, no meeting is planned. This is only one example
of the way that signals could be sued to determine the place and
time that they could meet. The possibilities are almost unlimited.
12. If the persons who are going to a personal meeting do not
know each other and it is the first time they meet, we use an
identification signal. This serves to establish the identity of
the two individuals as authorized members of the organization.
These signals are verbal crosswords that must seem part of a normal
conversation . It is simple an " identification request" and a
"countersign"-. For example, you, as the CI agent, have given
instructions to a messenger to go to a meeting place in order to
pass a message on to an employee who will be expecting it, whom he
has never seen. The messenger approaches the man and asks him ,
"Are you Juan's friend?" ( the identification signal previously
arranged for the employee). The employee answers, "No, but I know
his brother". (The response previously agreed for the question).
This allows the two that they can confide to each other and they
can continue with the mission that brought them there. They must
establish different identification orders and instructions for each
employee and the agent must note that they-do not forget them. In-
this sense, it is essential to train each employee to be certain
that there is complete understanding and to test his ability to
remember the "identification" signals assigned to him.
The questions and answers must be sufficiently simple,
distinctive and current so not to arouse suspicion in case someone
13. At times, the recognition procedure requires that each
interested party presents a previously agreed object that cannot be
easily duplicated. For example, A and B must present a dollar
bill, both bills bearing successive numbers. There was a time in
the intelligence services where a number of countries would divide
an object in two parts and give a part of each one to parsons who
had to hold a meeting. However, an intelligence service arrested
both secret agents, each one with half of the same dollar bill in
his wallet. This way, the identification means# the two haves of
a dollar bill, constituted proof that those two individuals who
denied knowing each other belonged to the same conspiring
14. The dialogue agreed between the interested parties, which
serves as a watchword must be specific, on the contrary, could be
deceptive and be a cause for difficulties, just as they occurred in
the following incident. In Germany, a young CI agent was sent to
a specific suburban bus stop in Berlin with instructions to meet
with a messenger whom he did not know and to deliver a powder box
that contained a roll of secret film. on arriving at the bus stop,
the young man observed immediataly a parson who entirely answered
the description of the men that he was supposed to meet. He
approached him, smiled and said to him. " I am a tourist. I
admire your beautiful country". "Yes, it is vary beautiful, I am
also a tourist", responded the man. His response was exactly what
had been agreed. The young CI agent informed must later that ha
was ready to deliver the package to the stranger, when he suddenly
explained, " this is my bus" and quickly boarded the vehicle.
15. In meetings in which the interested parties are known and
have been working together, a series of different signals is
issued. While waiting at an agreed meeting place, the employee
executes some positive act so that the CI agent may know that he
believes that the conditions do not offer any danger for the
meeting. This wants to say that he has taken the necessary
countersurveillance measures to attend the meeting, he is not
suspected and expects to establish contact with him.
p. A danger signal is used to warn the CI agent to stay away
from the employee. The absence of a security signal constitutes
the danger signal. In other words, if a security signal is not
given there is danger and the CI agent must not meet with the
employee. If the employee uses a positive signal to indicate that
there is danger, there is the probability that signal could be
observed by the opposition thus placing in danger the CI agent, the
employee and the operation.
C. OTHER METHODS:
1. The telephone must not be used in any way to transmit
intelligence information. It is almost always used to arrange
personal meetings. The CI agent must be aware of the fact that his
telephone as well as that of his associates could be intercepted.
Therefore, he must not use his own telephone to communicate with
his employees. It is best to use public telephones in such
occasions. on arranging a meeting with an employee by telephone,
must try to deceive persons who may be possibly listening concealed by
changing the time and place of the meeting. For example, if he
wishes to sea the employee on Wednesday at 8:00 p.m., if the agent
adds " at your home or my home", that could signify the principal
or alternate meeting place.
2. If there is a justified reason to suspect that the telephone
of the person that is being called is intercepted, must be double
careful. On answering the call the employee, the CI agent could
fake that he has called the wrong number, excusing himself in a
specific manner hang up. That would be an indication that will
give the employee to understand that he must go to a specific
public telephone, where he will call him in an hour and, if not
being there at that time, a half hour later than the agreed one.
Both persons must agree before hand to the significance of a number
of phrases and some few indispensable terms that would allow them
to express mutually simple things of their line. They must invent
brief coded expressions for emergency situations that would allow
the employee to inform his CI agent that he is under
surveillance,for example that his house has been searched and they
have seized compromising data, etc. Change a call from a private
telephone to a public telephone is a general practice used much by
intelligence agencies because it offers the possibility that their
employees can talk without fear that the telephone call is
intercepted. This way, they could maintain daily contact with
different employees using various telephones.
Radio communications have given place to many significant
changes in the intelligence practice. The true value of
intelligence is related with the quickens that the employee can
supply information to his superiors. Radio communications have
tremendously increased the speed of CI. Besides the quick
transmission of intelligence, radio communications have increased
the control factor. In the past, when an employee entered an area
dominated by the guerrillas, he was outside the immediate control.
if it was necessary to change the orders of the employee, the CI
agent had to deal with the problem of having to communicate with
him quickly. Likewise, the employee could not transmit quickly the
information that he had obtained, not been able either to receive
new instructions or additional instructions while he was in an area
dominated by the guerrillas. The :result was that the CI agent
lost effective control as soon as he entered the area of the
guerrillas. The use of the radio, either the radio receiver or the
transmitter - receiver has improved the control of the employee as
well as the timely receipt of intelligence information.
The introduction of the radio in the information gathering
technique has also raised new problems in addition to the
advantages that it presents. A problem is that the operation of a
transmitter-receiver requires a technical skill which is difficult
for may employees. When this is so, must recruit to the extend
possible persons who have technical ability in the operations of
radio transmissions and in the repair of equipment. Another
problem is that which radiogoniometry equipment raise. This
technique has been perfected to the extend that it is possible to
indicate with precision the house from where the radio transmission
is made in a large city like London or New York or in a rural
district not densely populated. Through a constant surveillance of
all transmissions, those of unknown origin could be separated from
those of known origin. When it stumbles on a transmission of
unknown origin, radio markings are taken from two radiogoniometry
stations located at different places. These radio markings are
traced on a map and their intersection will indicate the general
position of the unknown transmitted.
Two radiogoniometry stations are sent to the area and repeat the
proceeding. This will define more exactly the position of the
transmitted in the second stage. In the third stage the apparatus
succeeds to precise a general area, in a street or in a field. In
the fourth stage, could indicate exactly a particular house.
In spite of the efficiency of the detector apparatus, the radio
operator has the means to avoid being captured. only in cases of
need he will work in a hose or group of isolated houses. Normally,
if possible, hides in a large and noisy city. He must always think
that the opposition is aware of his presence in the city, and he
must not remain in a single place and transmit from well separated
In the first phases of an insurrection, the technique of basic
communications must be personal meetings, the radio is mentioned
since the guerrillas may have been successful in the early stages
to control certain areas which are inaccessible for a CI agent.
INVISIBLE INKS: The same like the radio, invisible inks are used
when an agent and his employee cannot be seen together for security
reasons. They are still used extensively. In order to be
effective they must have three qualities: They must pass unnoticed
by the opposition, must be easy to use and must be in a form that
the employee can carry with him without raising suspicions in case
his belongings are searched.
In order to read them, they have to be developed. The inks
which are used have developers. Intelligence laboratories have
worked to find inks whose developments are unknown to the enemy.
These inks have reached such a point that although they are easy to
use them, their development requires a complicated process. This
limits the casual use that could be offered to CI agent and his
The use of inks is extensive when the two are in different
countries. In the first stages of an insurrection this technique
is only used if the employee is in a delicate position and the
contact could place the operation in danger. If the guerrillas
gain control of the area then the inks, the same like the radio, could be
MICROPHOTOGRAPHY: It is possible to reduce a page to a point of
a film that is not larger than the head of a pin with this method.
In reducing the documents, this microphotographic point can be
treated to appear like an white opaque point that could be attached
to a piece of paper or on an envelope and it is highly difficult to
discover. The person who is going to receive it has been provided
a "developer" which he uses an the envelop so that the point loses
its opacity and appears like a black visible point o naked eye.
This technique has its disadvantages.
The apparatus necessary to do it is very large and complicated
to give it to employee. This signifies that it only has one use,
from the CI agent to employee. The employee will need a microscope
with a magnification power of not less than 200 times in order to
be able to read the microphotographic point. An employee who has
a microscope of this kind could be reason to be suspected.
CRYPTO: This word signifies "something hidden", it serves to
distinguish among "key" codes and "codes" because it refers to all
systems to convert a secret ( by means of symbols) to a "normal
text" or a " clear text". The general term in all this field is
today "cryptology", There are two sections:
The cryptography that has to do with preparation, projection,
invention or protection of keys and codes for the use of our
The cryptoanalysis, has to do with the simplification and
decoding of cryptograms, which is the translation of intercepted
foreign messages in the correct language.
The art of preparation of our own messages in keys or in code is
to write test by means of cryptography. The translation of our own
messages and their writing in normal and current language is,
A cryptogram is any coded document or message written in code.
" Communications intelligence" is information that has been
achieved through satisfactory cryptoanalysis made of third party
Certain keys and codes could be deciphered though analysis of
the intercepted messages just as the cryptoanalysis, or in a more
dramatic and simple way by obtaining copies or the books of the
codes or information about the codes which the opposition uses or
through a combination of these means.
Normally, when communication with employees is indirectly
carried out, whether by rad io or through postal or messenger
means, for security reasons the message must be written in an
enigmatic or unintelligible way, something that is usually done
through a system of keys and codes.
In a code, a certain word, symbol or group of symbols is
replaced by a word or even by a group of words or a complete
thought. We have, therefore, that "XLMDP" or '79648",depending on
the code, whether letters or numbers are used, could signify "war"
and each time they will appear in the message that is what it will
In a key, a symbol, such as a letter or a number, represent only
a single letter in a word. Therefore, "b" or "2" could signify "e"
or some other letter. In simple keys, the same symbol always
signifies the same letter. In complex keys that are used today,
the same symbol would represented a different letter each time it
appears. At times a message is first prepared in code and then in
MAILBOXES: In order to avoid face to face contacts among
operational elements, a system of mailboxes could be used. A box
is an a safe hidden place, designated beforehand, where a person
leaves information or material to be later picked up by another
individual. A mailbox is a means of avoiding personal contacts
among individuals of an operation in case one of the members is
apprehended. He cannot provide information about the operation
other than the fact that he picks up orders in a box and leaves the
information in another box. The CI agent must understand that the
use of mailboxes entails certain dangers since the material could
be temporarily out of his control and may be exposed to be casually
discovered. The material which is placed in a mailbox must remain
there the least time possible according with the operational
conditions. The longer it most remain there, the greater is the
risk of being discovered. In order to avoid the establishment of
a pattern, must not use the same mailboxes repeatedly. They must
be changed as frequently as the operational conditions allow.
In selecting the hiding places that have to be used as.
mailboxes, the following considerations must be kept in mind:
Access: Hoe close it is to person who are going to use it? Can
it be used without deviating from the normal activity pattern? Can
it always be used or only during the hours of the day or night?
Whether conditions: Will it be difficult to find it in rainy
conditions or in other weather conditions? Would require a special
envelope to protect the content in bad weather? will extreme or
extraordinary weather conditions allow to reach the area?
Compatibility: Could the individual who walk freely through
the area do it without drawing such attention? Is it in a place
where certain type of people frequent ( campers, hunters, etc.)?
Size: How big is the material that is going to be placed in this
Security: Is the mailbox located in an area where there may be
danger? Could the employee use it without being captured by enemy
Description: Could it be easily described in a way that a
stranger could locate it by only following your instructions?
There are also certain signs that must be used with mailboxes
for maximum security. These are the "in" and "out" signs. When an
employee or a CI agent places material in the mailbox, one or the
other goes to another place designated in advance and indicates by
means of a sign to whom provides the service that he has a message
"in" the hiding place. This could be done in many ways, a chalk
mark in a certain building, etc. The sign must be made as far
possible from the mailbox, so that the person who provides the
service may take the necessary precautions of countersurveillance
on going or coming from the point where the sign was made. Once
the person picks up the material in the hiding place. he must go to
a new place and make the "out" sign. This serves to inform the
person who places the message that it has been transferred without
incident. The distance from the place where the sign is made is
determined by the same security precautions that are used in making
the "in" sign.
The mailboxes must not be close to houses of the employees. If
a mailbox is accidently discovered, that could be reason to suspect
everyone in the area. The mailboxes must not be close to bridges,
railroad terminals, tunnels and other areas that could have
military significance and therefore be protected zones.
HUMAN MAILBOXES: It is someone who temporarily safeguards
information or material left by a person to be picked up by someone
else later. The person selected as human mailbox must be one whose
profession offers him the opportunity-to deal with people of. all
social layers. A plausible excuse must be established that gives
reason to repeated visits that member of the organization make to
use his services. Doctors, singers, shopkeepers, etc. make good
THE MESSENGER: Is an individual who knowingly carried messages
and material between points or operational individuals. He must
not know the content that he carried or the true nature of the
material. The best person for this post is one that may have the
capacity to walk among the operational elements without being
suspected. This person could be a bus driver, a salesman, a
traveling salesman, etc. In many situations, women are the best
messengers. Women frequently do not have someone to whom to
account for their time; they are not subject to military service and in
most cases they are not, like the man, exposed to careful searches.
They must always use camouflage and cover methods to hide the fact
that the messenger is carrying a message. The CI agent must be
certain that the messenger's knowledge is limited to what he needs
to know. They can be used among members of a network that does not
hold meetings, but must be careful that the messenger does not got
to know all the members of the network. The messenger must be
trained in the methods used to discover if he is watched and the
different uses given to signals, to mailboxes and personal
ADDRESS OF CONVENIENCE: It is one in which the custodian could
receive a form of public communication ( letter, card, telegram,
etc.) and keep it to be picked up or delivered to the agent or a
designated person. The custodian must not know the true nature of
the content of the messages sent through him. These messages are
normally harmless letters that contain concealed sings. The
custodian must have a plausible explanation to receive the
correspondence and a logical reason to put him in contact with the
person that will eventually receive it.
This type of communication is satisfactory where postal services
are fast, safe and adequate. It can be used when an employee could
become a suspect if he receives it at his own address>
Many times, employees are apparently searched by the police
because of their illegal participation in the guerrilla movement.
Consequently, the police as a routine matter could confiscate any
correspondence that is sent to the house of the employee. A letter
send to a third party, previously recruited and trained could be
possessor of an address of convenience, it could be picked up by
the employe. The letter must be addressed to the custodian of the
address, however, he must be warned through an agreed signal in
advance on the envelope or in the letter, that the correspondence
is intended to a particular third party. This sign could be part
of the text of the message or the way the stamped in placed, etc.
If necessary the signs of the sender on the correspondence that
is mailed to an address of convenience, must be a true address,
although must not be the name and address of the person related
with the information network. Usually the best current names are
randomly selected from telephone books, advertisements, etc.
SAFE PLACES: The CI agent and his employees are constantly faced
with the need of looking for areas where they could keep their
activities concealed from foreign elements. These areas, under
roof or in the open air, are known as safe places. A safe
place is a place ever which a certain degree of control is
exercised. When the place is in open air, such as a clearance in
the forest, a "vareda" (sic) in a mountain, a bench in a park, etc.
I it is known-as a safe place. Nevertheless, if the safe place is
a residance,building or shelter of some kind, at times it is known
as a safe building. We constantly look for desirable safe places
when meeting of long duration have to be hold. 0 safe place could
be used to conduct meetings, as temporary lodging of employees and
for storage of material that must not be compromised.
A good safe place must have various approaching avenues and must be
selected taking into consideration countersurveillance measures.
Because we call a place safe, it does not mean that it is safe.
The users must be constantly alert to any possible discovery or
The operator must maintain a record of the safe places and their
use. If one of the places is exposes, it must be avoided for all
future contacts. A saf o building must not be used in the
recruitment of an employee or in operations with employees whose
loyalty is unknown. Like in all phases of the operations, it must
be emphasized that contact among employees must be avoided. They
must remain separate and not be allowed to use the same saf e
places. On using a building, the different buildings that may be
under your control must not be revealed unless the operations
demand it. Although it is possible that various employees may have
to come to the safe building, care must be taken that all may not
be informed of the relationship that each one has with the
operation. Change the dates and times of meetings among the
sources and the agent in order that they do not meet coming or
going from the safe place.
1. Storage is the process of hiding equipment or material
with the aim of being collected for use in support of an
operation at a future date. In many occasions an employee will
have to be provided food, medicine, money or other material to help
him in carrying out his mission. He may be located in an isolated
or unknown area where be does not have the necessary articles at
his disposition. In such cases, it is the responsibility of the CI
agent to make certain that the required articles have been placed
in a way that the employee could get then as the need arises.
2. There are three storage methods, these are:
The burial is the one used most and which offers a high
degree of security. The person doing it must keep in mind the
following four steps which are very important:
(1) He must select a water proof wrapping of
appropriate size to accommodate the material.
(2) Must inspect each article to see if it is in
serviceable order before placing it in the package.
(3) Must protect all articles individually in order to
b. Location selection:
(1) Be must choose a physical and operationally
accessible art& to personnel in charge of picking up the material,
as close as it may be possible to a permanent and identifiable
(2) Must not place anything in an area that could have
military importance ( under a bridge, railroad, military barracks,
(3) Must select a place that offers a certain degree of
(4) Must select a place as close as it can possibly be
tot he area where the material is going to be used.
(1) Must have a logical reason to be in the area.
(2) Must place the material as quick as possible,
having planned in advance the best time to do it.
(3) Must be informed of the enemy security forces which
are operating in the area.
(4) Must make sure to inspect the area after the
placement to make certain that it looks the same as before he
placed the material.
(1) Must prepare a record of the storage place in order
to be able to find it easily.
(2) Must annotate in the record the material he placed
at each location.
(3) The instruction for picking up the material must be
always simple; may include sketches, maps, photographs and any
other information that could be of assistance.
(4) Must record the date, time, and circumstance of
Various ways communicating with your employee have been
discussed. it was emphasized that in the guerrilla early phases
personal meetings are the best means of communication with your
A. The advantages of these meetings are:
1. To provide a better harmony and understanding with your
2. To give you more control in that in a direct way you give
him instructions, you receive the information and you pay him.
3. It allows to continuously evaluate your employee.
4. Provides you a more effective way of recruiting an
employee and to terminate his services.
5. Allows the CI agent and the employee to be in the same
area during the early phases of insurrection.
B. The disadvantages of these meetings are:
1. If the employee works for the resistance, he will be
closely watched by other members of the movement.
2. If he is a "secret agent" he could then obtain descriptive
information regarding the CI agent and the meeting places.
3. Unless they have an obvious reason to be together, they
could arise suspicions of other observers.
4. The CI agent, in as much as he may know his employee
better, he could lose his objectivity in his relations with the
The telephone must be used only to arrange meetings and to
transmit information, except for information that may be highly
important. The telephone user must rely on public telephones and
avoid using his private telephone, because this could be
intercepted. The telephone messages must be coded.
The radio, messengers, safe places, microphotographic points,
invisible inks, hiding places, codes and keys, and the storage are
all valuable means of communication when it is not desirable or a
personal meeting is not possible. It is possible that these
techniques could be used in the early phases of the insurrection,
but this is even more probable. If the guerrillas are successful
and achieve control of certain areas, the CI agent could be forced
then to use some of these communication methods. The examples
given are intended to show you that it is not necessary and perhaps
even undesirable to be complicated in your communications with the
employee. The essence of your communication system with the
employees is that the means which you choose are secure and
CHAPTER VIII: DEVELOPMENT OF AN IDENTITY
In the previous chapters we discussed the vulnerabilities of the
guerrillas. We already saw that the CI agent must be alert to
recognize these vulnerabilities, and to base on these the
operations of his employees. For example. he must know the five
steps related with the latent insurrection, and how to exploit the
objectives that are in each step. He also recognizes the relations
that exist among the steps of intelligence, propaganda,
organization, training and the struggle itself. The Ci agent
continues gather or searching for information through his extensive
network of employees.
A. Like future CI agents, you know perfectly that there are many
types of employees and diverse operation that these must carry out.
For example, the supervisor of the employee is intelligent,
confident, flexible and able; he has good administrative and
leadership qualities, since he is probably employed for different
reasons: Let's see. If for security reasons, MUST NOT make contact
with the employee, if the operation is carried out in a
particularly hostile environment, if he has an extensive network of
employees, etc. The person in charge of gathering information is
the one who performs the work. That persons gives fulfillment to
the mission - that is to say, satisfies the requirement. Now then,
the requirement or the problem could be complicated, for example,
this could be an operation of penetration of a dissident rural
organization. It could also be of simple observation of the
population and the surroundings of the village, in order to take in
the whole activity. In order to satisfy this requirement; or give
a solution to this problem, the CI agent locates, controls or
observes and makes contact with the employees. He must rely on
secure places or zones, where he could train and test his
employees. Often he has to seek the assistance of experts when the
mission demands technical support. In this way, we see that a
THIRD TYPE OF EMPLOYEE is needed.. the support employee. We al
know that the CI agent is an individual who although may have been
well trained, he can only do a number of things in a specific time.
Therefore, he employs support personnel for assistance in
We have then that there are many types of employees and diverse
types of missions which fluctuate between the most complex
penetration up to simple observation demands of a village.
- What fictitious identity must this individual have in order
to be able to fulfil his mission?
B. Before sanding him in pursuit of his mission, the employee
must be given a detailed identity that will serve him to conceal
the task that he is going to perform. Said identity could be
TOTALLY fictitious or ALMOST true; the latter is more advisable..
Regardless what his nature may be, the identity must become part of
the employee, be must know even the most intimate details. He must
be so natural$ as if it was his prior identity. All that the
employee possesses gives credence to his identity from his personal
identification documents to what he carries in his pockets. in
other words, the employee lives his identity. he truly converts
into the person that he representing. it is not matter what type of
employee he is - supervisor, information collector or support
employee, the parson uses an identity when he carries out his
search or information gathering obligations. In addition, the CI
agent provides identities to a cell or group of cells that may be
jointly working in a mission. All these persons could work to
"Protect" an established organization, whether public or private,
providing a service or selling a product. In this aspect, the
identity has to be complete, that is to say, the service that is
provided or the product it makes have to be true. In this manner,
while surreptitiously carry out his mission, the individual LIVES
his identity and works for the good of the common cause of the
C. NEED FOR AND HOW TO ESTABLISH AN IDENTITY FOR COVERT
1. The reason that supports the use of identities, whether
individual or for cells, could be summarized in a single word:
SECURITY. We already have dealt with the general principles of
individual, cell or operational security. We also have dealt with
specific measures that are put into practice to MAINTAIN this
security. We said that the identity, cover and general principles
were the means put into practice to MAINTAIN a good security
system. The identity provides the employee excuse to live where he
lives, to work where he works, and to deal socially with the
persons he deals with.
The Identity, as we said before, gives credence to individual
actions of the employee at the same time " conceals" his
clandestine movements. The identity allows, a cell or a group of
employees to work TOGETHER. It helps the employee or the group to
avoid suspicion of the guerrillas. In this manner, the identity
protects the employee against the guerrillas, and places him in a
position from which to carry out his mission. With good acumen,
the identity could also protect the mission against worse
consequences if the employee is discovered. We could well say that
the identity is a true art since it deals with human beings, the
relations among them, what they believe and what they feel, with
their habits and their expressions, their aspirations and their
2. The same general steps that are given for an identity
could be put into action whether the employee remains fixed in an
area, travels through said area, or may have to be introduced in
this after having been interviewed. In all cases, it is important
to remember that the employee is able to perform the recommended
tasks and at the same time to live his normal life. Nevertheless,
the CI agent prepares an identity which hides the clandestine
activities of the employee at the time he executes them, since the
SEARCH FOR INFORMATION or the gathering of this information could
be outside the normal activities of the employee. For example, an
employee who lives his identity in a village which in under the
control of the guerrillas has to conceal the act of interrogating
the villagers with respect to guerrilla organization , and give the
appearance that he is only casually interested on the subject. The
information must be obtained, but the true reasons for
acquiring it must be hidden behind a protecting identity that gives
credence, and which the employee could live totally. Therefore,
when the CI agent proceeds to develop or "manufacture" an identity,
he has in mind the following: " How can the true identity and the
natural activity of this employee be adopted to natural activities
to be used to conceal two general types of identities: That which
the employee lives daily, and that which gives the employee a
reason to perform his mission during those occasions in which he
performs clandestine actions. We shall call the first -
POSITION IDENTITY and the second ACTION IDENTITY.
The position identity gives the employee an excuse to live where he
lives, the action identity provides the innocent pretext that
conceals the search action or gathering of information.
On giving the employee his identities, the agent has in mind the
a. ANALYZE THE MISSION OF THE EMPLOYEE: For example, He often
used a support employee only in certain phases of the search
operation within the zone controlled by the guerrillas, whether to
locate, investigate, or make contact with other employees, while an
employee supervisor as a rule has the mission of controlling a
cell, or more than an employee, in all his movements.
Consequently, the CI agent studies carefully each phase of the
mission to make certain that the identity ia in accordance with the
b. CONSIDER THE EMPLOYEE: After analyzing the mission, the CI
agent considers the employee. Be decided then which identity would
explain the WHO, WHAT, WHERE, and WHY of the employee's actions and
besides all this, to be in agreement with his personal history. He
must work with the employee, study his history, analyze his
intelligence and his personal qualities in order to decide then
which identity would be more appropriate. The ideal would be that
the employee could perform his many tasks using his true name,
personal history. For example, we saw the case in which the
employee is of military age, and naturally, he would normally be
fulfilling his military obligations. If he divulges his true age,
a guerrilla would suspect that this employee has some connection
with the government. After analyzing the mission of the employee,
his personal history, and his personality, we retain those parts of
his true history that could be used for identification purposes an
discard the rest. The CI agent combines the useful information of
the history with the rest of the identity. He must be certain that
the new identity of the employee will stand before the
investigation of the guerrillas. Examined the identity in detail
to make certain that it is realistic and it is according to customs
and activities of the area. The identity should satisfy the
questions which the guerrillas commonly make. It is impossible to
create an identity for an individual if the last details are not
arranged to complete satisfaction of the employee. The employee
must meet the necessary requirements in order to be able to LIVE
his identity naturally and complacency, and he must be able to
fulfil the assigned mission. The identity is not. so complex or
weak that does not offer the employee time to complete his mission.
For example, he must not give. an employee the identity of a
fisherman who must be introduced in a rural coastal zone and at the
same time, work from sunrise to sunset, fishing in a boat far from
On the contrary, he is given a less demanding identity and the
economic means that allow him certain freedom of movement. At the
same tine, the identity must provide the employee a reasonable
explanation of certain " tools related to the mission" that could
be in his possession. once again, we must be flexible and use
common sense. There is no imaginable identity that could disguise
the reason that a migrant farm worker has in his possession a Leika
camera with telephotographic lenses. In this case, we conceal out
actions. Therefore, the identity is in agreement with the
character of the individual, at the same time he must be provided
a means of support that may not be the compensation that he may
receive from the search and information gathering activities.
d. CONSIDER THE ENVIRONMENT
Immediately after, the counterintelligence agent considers the.
environment in which the employee is getting ready to go to work.
Analyzes the conditions under which the employee is going to
perform. is it an urban or a rural area? In an urban zone, a
strange face would arise less suspicion that in a rural community.
Under what circumstances could the individual solicit information
in the area? What freedom of movement has the employee? Would a
walking traveler arise suspicion? The employee must be prepared to
explain why he travels from one place to another where he has been,
and what he presently does. According to what we deal with at the
initial testing, an investigation must be made of the area to
determine the conditions and activities which prevail in it. In
the case of the employee who is resident of the zone, the
counterintelligence agent or an employee who provides support will
do the investigation. The information obtained, like other reports
obtained from the archives or other investigating means, must be
then incorporated to a general identity. if an employee is going to
be introduced Into an area, which the CI CANNOT enter, said agent
could use an Investigating support agent. If this is not
possible, the CI agent will have to depend on the information he
has about the employee, the information he has compiled from
captured local guerrillas, or the investigation he did of the
archives and publications.
D. TYPES OF IDENTITY:
1. In addition to position and action identities, there are two
other types of identities. Instead of being based on actions of
the employee, the other two categories are based on the degree of
veracity that the information has.
In other words, we define the types of identities, according to
amount of information needs to be used to develop them.
2. We already have discussed, during the lecture, the true
identity related with the development of the identity. We said
that the counterintelligence agent must analyze the personal
history of the employee and his personality, and COMBINE THEM to
adopt then to the identity. In this manner, the true identity is
the employees own identity. The ideal would be that the only NOT
REAL aspect of the employee's pretext ( or identity) were the
relations with the CI agent or supervisor in his secret mission.
The REAL identity is the best type since it can be substantiated.
In a way it does not matter how intensely the guerrillas study or
investigate the employee, these parts of his identity which are
real will remain credible at all times. On the other hand, an
employee who resides in the zone and remains there, could use the
real identity with good results. He will only have to conceal the
relationship he has with the government representative and offer
credible reasons for his absence during the periods or moments in
which he is meeting with the counterintelligence agent. The real
identity is com bined with the action identity to disguise the
clandestine actions with an apparently NATURAL and CONTINUOUS
action. in another way, an employee who has carried out a
penetration and has been placed in an organization or group, could
use his true identity and benefit from it., He must disguise the
reason for which he joined the group and conceal his clandestine
activities, but his own identity could counteract any
investigation, if he uses his true personal history. This way, we
see that the true identity provides credibility and a solid base of
existence. That could only be developed through a detailed
analysis of the personal history of the individual and his
personality. As you already know, the CI agent deals with the
employee ALL aspects of his identity in a way that he is in
agreement with the true nature of the employee and mainly consists
of facts taken from his real life. Thus, the guerrilla has less
probabilities of suspecting that the former is conducting an
investigation of the latter, will not discover the true mission of
3. As its name indicates, the fictitious identity is false and,
therefore, cannot stand up to a constant analysis. it must be used
up to a certain point; all depends on the mission, on the
environment in which the employee must operate and on the employee
The CI agent, who works closely with the employee, will decide
what part of the identity should be false in order to protect the
employee and the mission, if this in credible and will support a
4. There are cases in which it is necessary to introduce the
employee to a guerrilla organization. The employee could play the
role of a government deserter who is willing to work for the cause
of the guerrillas. The government provides him with certain
information which he must present to the guerrillas at the same
time, on his part, he tries to gather information. His identity as
a rule is completely false and could be discovered easily. The
guerrillas suspect these men and they also investigate carefully.
These "introduced" employees are rarely used. The "introduction"
of an employee who resides in the area is much easier, because
although his reasons for joining the guerrilla force are false, the
rest of his identity is real. Here, we must remember that the
communist guerrillas are familiar with these actions and conduct
exhaustive investigations of the recruits who aspire to join their
ranks. This way, we say that any operation which the employee may
carry out, the identity whether real or false, must be able to
resist a careful analysis.
5. Another type of fictitious identity is that which is used
when the employee is surprised in the act of fulfilling his
mission. It is logical to think that the employee will provide him
a reasonable action identity, and that will serve to disguise his
true action. Now then, what would happen if this identity fails?.
The employee is prepared to present another credible reason,
although false, for his conduct. in normal circumstances, if the
action identity does not disguise the fact as it should, the
employee becomes a center of suspicion. Since the intelligence
activities are suspicious, and when the action identity fails, the
employee must then make the guerrilla believe that he is conducting
criminal acts instead of intelligence operations. it is possible
that the employee could disguise his intelligence activities if he
admits his guilt to a criminal act that would reasonably explain
his suspected action;
6. Now that we know what identities could be true or false (
fictitious), we must devote then ourselves to analyze the
two types of cell identities that are used.
The different of the position and action identities which are
based on the position the employee occupies in the community, in
his actions and in the true and fictitious identities that are
defined according to veracity of the information Used, the call
type identities are catalogued according to types of positions the
individual calls enjoy. These two categories of call identity
could be based on real or false information. All depends on the
identity that is needed.
7. We said that a call has more than one employee or
counterintelligence agent who work together in a specific
clandestine mission. For reasons of coordination, training or due
to nature of the mission, perhaps may be necessary to hold periodic
meetings with members of the call who, because of their position,
are not of the same social class and for that reason cannot meet
with the sane frequency without arousing suspicions. The
counterintelligence agent or the employee supervisor must then
select a natural and frank reason to hold a meeting. Therefore,
must have an identity which provides a credible excuse so that this
group of individuals may meet. In a rural zone, a meeting of this
nature is very difficult to prepare and impossible to hold without
arousing suspicion of the population and of the guerrillas. As you
know, it is very easy in a rural zone to watch all movements that
persons who live there make. The family connections, the
relatively reduced number of people, the hates and passions of the
people all these factors combine to make the environment very
suspicious and open, naturally for that reason constitutes a threat
to security. On the other hand, the situation in the urban areas
is entirely different. Due to urban environment, the people are
accustomed to constantly change jobs and residence; everything is
crowded in the city. Due to the fact that in the urban environment
prevails an attitude that we could call " unconcerned", it is much
easier to hold here call meetings and to use the cell identity.
Sheltered by said identity, Just as a celebration of a national
holiday, a meeting o theology studies, or a book club, or games,
etc., the counterintelligence agent or the employee supervisor
could hold a meeting without arousing alarm or suspicion. The type
of meeting ( simple or sophisticated) and nature of the identity
that is needed depends on the mission and. requirements of the
employee. However, such meetings must be held" only when they are
absolutely necessary and the identity of the cell must be
thoroughly and totally credible.
Of course, just like the case of the other identities, this must
be in agreement with the activities and natural identities of the
a. ORGANIZATION IDENTITY:
1) We are now going to consider an identity to provide to
cell employees, a positive reason of working regularly together.
For example, when the administration, direction or support given to
a clandestine activity must be carried out through the combined
effort of persons who have to justify their constant association,
an organization identity must be then created under the shelter of
which all interested could work together. In the first case, a
false identity would be necessary. In the latter, the true
identity could be used. The organization identity is used to
disguise and protect the employees and their activities, as well as
the installations where the clandestine activities are carried out.
Let's see an example: In the case of the latin American countries,
a fruit company could serve as an excellent front or "cover" for an
organization, real or false, since under the pretext of buying land
or fruit, or of inspecting certain locations in respect to fruit
marketing, the employees could gather large amounts of highly
useful information. Now then, it is logical to assume that the
type of organization identity used will depend on the security
requirements and the efficiency demanded from the employed
personnel. As you can imagine, the organization identity is very
convenient since it allows a close coordination and protection to
archives of easy access. Just like the case of the other types of
identities, the organization identity depends on the individual.
That is to say, each employee or agent must LIVE his identity in
order to be able to sustain the pretext of the group.
E. AUTHENTICATION OF IDENTITY:
1. The identity is used to disguise the fact that they are
carrying out clandestine operations. Said identity must be a
complete summary of the past, present and future of the employee,
presented in such a logic and realistic manner that it avoids to
raise the suspicion of the guerrillas and the subsequent
identification of the employee. The counterintelligence agent must
be certain that all aspects of the employee identity are dully
tested and authenticated. For example, that the total identity be
credible and realistic.
For the authentication of an employee three steps are given: the
identity is developed, the documents which sustain said identity
are selected, the personal property is inspected and the natural
appearance is given to articles which the individual carried in his
a. DEVELOPMENT OF AN IDENTITY:
1) We already have considered the points to consider when the
identity of an employee is developed. A good identity includes a
position and an action identity which gives the employee access to
the objective. The identity must: follow closely the personal
history of the individual to be sufficiently detailed to appear
real; be sustained by the necessary documents, consider all
possible contingencies, be faithfully memorized by the employee.
The counterintelligence agent must train and rehearse the employee
in the use of his identity. He must be certain that the employee
knows it thoroughly and that he does not forget his true identity,
while performing his mission. The employee is send to the area
only after he has been thoroughly trained, and he is sufficiently
trained to perform all aspects of his identity. In addition, the
employee must live in the area and practice his identity it is to
bin entirely natural. Now then, this is necessary when the degree
of identity needed is determined. AP we have seen, there are cases
in which some employees can retain all aspects of the real and
present life, and only have to disguise their association or their
relations with the counterintelligence agent. We saw others, in
which the employee assumes a totally now or different identity to
be able to perform his mission. Such employees practice and live
their identity, before they attempt to carry out the mission.
2) In selecting the identity of the employees the
counterintelligence agent selects also the documents which he needs
to sustain said identity. The documents identify, grant
privileges, or provide a measure of control. The amount of
documents necessary to authenticate the identity of an employee
depends on the area of the objective and the mission that is going
to be carried out. Let's see. In an urban area, it is very
possible that an employee only needs those documents that confirm
his identity. For example, if it is the case of an employee who
has the identity of a traveling salesman, the documents could
include an identification card in which is stated his place of
birth, residence , etc., an authorization to travel, and , if his
identity demands it, a falsified card of affiliation to a guerrilla
In Malaysia, the government has employees "placed" inside the
guerrilla organization, whose mission was to obtain passes or
permits and identification cards of the guerrilla organization.
each time the guerrillas changed the preparation form, color or
other aspects of the cards, the government also was changing theirs
and issued then to employees. The number of employees that were
discovered by the guerrillas as a result of the use of these
documents was small. We have then that the required documentation
depends on the identity to be adopted. The counterintelligence
agent must ascertain that the documents complement the identity.
The employee must become thoroughly familiar with his documents.
However, this is better than an anonymous system - depending on an
excellent set of documents and to know that the employee is totally
familiar with his identity. For that reason, must not be
substituted. The documents sustain the identity of the employee
but the success of both is craftiness.
2. Since the majority of low level employees available to carry
out an internal defense operation will be residents of their
village or city, neither the personal appearance of the same nor
the property, such as clothes, represent a problem as it refers to
identity. However, on authenticating the employee's identity, the
counterintelligence agent considers such points like mannerisms os
the individual, his height, his accent and vocabulary use. He must
be certain that everything is in accordance with the position he
occupies in the locality. A traveling sales man who has a
motorcycle could raise suspicion if he is found in an area where
the roads are very deficient, or where there are few mechanical
means. A villager would attract much attention if "without
warning" and without acceptable justification acquired new clothes
or other conveniences.
3> If for any reason, the employee is subjected to a search by
the guerrillas, all papers or articles found in his possession have
to confirm or verify his identity. That is to say, even when these
documents certify his identity, it is very possible that the
articles that he carries in his pocket could incriminate his.
Let's see an example: The receipt of an article bought in a village
could support the statement of the individual who insists of having
been in said town. On the other hand, could confirm the suspicions
of the guerrillas that the individual is lying.
We have dealt with the subject of employee and cell identities,
and of course, we have seen that they are very necessary to
security. Because the employee's operations are so extensive,
security becomes a constant reason of concern for the
counterintelligence agent. In order to maintain a good security
system, credible identities are developed in his organization of
employees. In doing so, takes into consideration the mission to be
carried out, the specific employee who is going to do it, and the
area where if going to be done, BEFORE HE CAN DECIDE what identity
is the most convenient. Naturally, the demands or requirements
that must be met limit up to a certain point the alternative
possibilities. Nevertheless, tries then to do the possible-
because the identity is in agreement with the true history and
personality of the employee. After analyzing the employee and
working with him, moves on to consider the operational environment
in which the mission is going to be carried out. He must develop
a position identity and another of action in order to give the
employee a credible excuse of his presence in the area and another
to disguise his actions. in developing an identity uses the
employee's personal history as much as possible. A fictitious
identity could be introduced whenever the need to do it arises, but
must be realistic and credible. There are times when a cell
identity must be developed to disguise the clandestine reason that
supports the meeting of persons, who apparently are from different
social classes. The counterintelligence agent develops an identity
of an organization whose purpose is to disguise in a realistic
manner the activities of the group of persons who work together.
After considering and developing the identity, must
authenticate it with documents, and to obtain miscellaneous
articles for the pocket of the employee, to substantiate it. The
counterintelligence agent must train and test persistently the
agent to assure that everything is in agreement with the chosen
We must not forget that in order to develop the identity, a
careful preparation of plans and close coordination must be carried
out with the individual or individuals who are concerned with the
matter. If we do not give the necessary realism and credibility to
each phase of the identity and if the employee does not memorize
and play his role faithfully, WE HAVE LOST THE SECURITY, and it is
probable that the success of the mission comes into play.
SCRUTINY OF EMPLOYEES
In the last chapter about individual security and on cell
security, it was learned how important is to strictly follow
certain established methods, techniques and principles. It was
also learned that in order to achieve a secure and effective
network of employees, we must maintain their action controlled on
the bassi of a careful analysis and appropriate planning.
Consequently, the CI agent must plan and initiate the scrutiny of
the employees in order to make certain that all members of the
network submit to established discipline; it also serves to prevent
employees from acting on their own, allows to test the honesty, to
determine the level of training and what additional training is
necessary. Finally, but no less important, serves to frustrate the
attempts on the part of. the guerrillas to penetrate the agent's
activity and subsequently subvert his employees inducing them to
cooperate with the opposition. As it can be seen, the scrutiny of
the employee is carried out by many different techniques. At this
time we shall deal with the subject of when, under what
circumstances, how and for what purpose the agent begins the
scrutiny of the employees. During the presentation it would be
possible to determine that we are not personnel dedicated to test
only the activities of the employees, but we also have to test the
communication lines, hiding places, and convenience addresses.
1. In talking about scrutiny of the employees in general terms,
we must consider the following factors: First, what other activity
has to do with the employees, the scrutiny of these must be carried
out under a proper control. Each inquiry must be planned in such
a way that it serves to verify or produce a specific fact or facts.
Thus, each inquiry and the corresponding results must be recorded
and the archives verified before beginning a new probe. Fourth,
the inquiry must be valid, that is to say, must be prepared in such
a way that the produced results are positive or negative in nature.
1. GENERAL CONSEQUENCES:
a. Due to the nature itself and purpose of the scrutiny of
the employees, the methods and techniques of the inquiry shall be
different for each employee and for different areas. The methods
and techniques will depend on the history of the employee or
employees submitted to scrutiny, the availability of certain
facilities and requirements and local directives. In the scrutiny
of the employees, development of harmony must be a continuous
process. Every evaluation must be backed through a verification.
b. We already have said that the methods for the scrutiny of employees varies from one area to another. Why do they vary?
c. Now we shall speak of the following problem which
certainly is more than enough linked to the first# that is, take
into consideration the history of the employee.
Why is this consideration important?
d. In order to illustrate what was said before, let Is
look at the following example: We suppose that we are checking an
employee to determine the voracity of his statements. in order to
do this we solicit a simple inquiry. We interrogate the individual
carefully and make precise annotations of his statements. Few days
later we interrogate the employee again asking the same questions.
If we find discrepancies between the two statements, it can be
assumed that there is a possible deception. However, in order to
have valid proof, we must take into consideration the education
level and intelligence of the interested, because it impossible
that a person with little education or little intelligence to
forget some facts, could have misinterpreted then or even relate
them falsely, which could produce discrepancies in his statements.
If the case is so, must not think that the individual is
intentionally lying. On the other hand, in the case of a more
intelligent individual, such discrepancies could very well be
indicative of intentional deception.
e. The third determining factor for this type of inquiries and
methods to be used is the availability of means to conduct the
scrutiny of the employees, like all other intelligence activities,
it must be a well planned activity. before examining an employee it
is imperative to consider many factors and to compile numerous
2. inquiring methods. The agent has available the following
three types of inquiries:
a. Investigative inquiry
b. Mental examination
c. Mechanical examination.
d. INVESTIGATIVE INQUIRY:
1) We shall analyze the first type, the investigative
inquiry. Like in any other type of testing, in order to
investigate it is necessary to have certain pertinent data. In
order to obtained the desired information previously planned
questions are asked. The answers are noted and in their turn these
are examined and compared with other specific data. This way the
veracity of the first statement can be determined. We must
remember one thing during friendly character interrogations, the CI
agent will always take the initiative to ask the questions. He
must never accept as true the statement of an employee if first he
has not examine it and proven to be true. One must remember that
we are not newspaper reporters in search for a sensational story,
we are counterintelligence agents in search of concrete facts. it
is imperative to keep in mind, that even in dealing with an old
employees he must be subjected to scrutiny, his statements must be
investigated and his honesty determined. Must never accept the
statement of an employee without verifying it first. The problem
is to do the verification without damaging the harmony already
developed. The desired success is to make the employee understand
that the direct interrogatory is a routine matter, which is a good
system, and it is necessary to fulfil the mission, as well as to
protect him and the rest of the personnel. The employee must be
made to see that one is testing the operational matters not because
of lack of confidence in him, but more so for the purpose of
guaranteeing his own personal safety, that is to say, to make
certain that he is not discovered by the opposition. Every agent
must understand that operational control measures, including
scrutiny of the employees, in rare occasions are conducted not only
for investigating the employee personally, but even more so serve
as a means to sustain him because of the guerrillas, as well as to
protect the members of the network.
2) The Investigative inquiry.
Not every employee who may have been dishonest is a guerrilla
sympathizer. The reasons for the lack of honesty are many. Some
employees lie in order to obtain monetary gain, to cover mistakes,
or to appear that they are not afraid. But whatever the reason may
be, in order to protect our mission, it is our duty to discover the
absence of honesty wherever and-when it occurs. The professional
counterintelligence agent must constantly analyze his employees, he
must try to detect in them any indications of having too much
confidence or of being afraid. Once this is done,- he must
discover the cause and give a solution to the problem. Security
imposes this duty on the agent.
3) We illustrate this point as a true case that occurred during
an operation. The employee was an old lady, who worked as a nurse
and who during a revolt succeeded to enter as such in the area.
She had succeeded to recruit a local employee ( a resident in the
area of the guerrillas) who agreed to supply information about the
movements of the guerrilla forces. Naturally, the employee was
supplied with pertinent date from the new employee. The
appropriate checking of the archives was made but the results were
negative. A little time later a new employee became quite
productive. Every month the nurse in question made trips in the
area of the guerrillas where she remained two or three days.. on
returning from these trips, she stated of having established a
hiding place near the village of the employee in which he planted
the information. The nurse reported to the counterintelligence
agent all the details of the hiding place as well as the
circumstances of collection. The counterintelligence agent was
satisfied with the report until he realized that the nurse had not
provided sufficient details in regards to her trip in the area, nor
how she had established the hiding place, that is to may, how she
did the trip, the distance, ate. The supervisor of the
counterintelligence agent mentioned this matter to his and they
agreed that in the next visit the agent would obtain the pertinent
He was agreeable to the suggestion since in this manner he would
eliminate any doubt his supervisor could have about the nurser. It
is unnecessary to say that when the lady in question supplied all
the required details, it was easy to determine that she had not
established any hiding place in the guerrilla area. She showed the
hiding place on the map and indicated that she had made the round
trip by foot to said place using the same route and with a duration
of time of four hours. After which the CI agent measured the
distance between the town and the hiding place, which convinced him
that the nurse had lied, because it was impossible to have made the
trip in four hours. It was possible to determine through an
investigation that the nurse had acted operationally dishonest.
She had recruited a local employee who had agreed to cooperate, but
a little time later he was forced to leave the area by the
guerrillas. The nurse thought that because of the fact of having
lost her employee, she could also lose her employment.
Consequently, she opted to lie about the operation. The
information which she provided was invented in the friendly area,
and not like she had stated before, when she stated that the events
occurred in the area controlled by the guerrillas. Taking a firm
stand in the basic problem, that is, the scrutiny of the employees,
we can clearly see that the truth is developed by the investigative
actions: First, through detailed debriefing and second on making a
comparison between the information and other available operational
4) Now I will give you another interesting case to illustrate
this point. An intelligence agency relied on a very reliable
employee, who for some time had supplied valuable intelligence
information. He was an employee easy to control and very
disciplined. His reports were always detailed and exact. It is
easy to understand why the counterintelligence agent as well as the
group supervisor held this employee in high esteem. With time the
counterintelligence agent was assigned to a new post, and he was
replaced by another agent. The new agent studied the file of the
employee in question and was able to tell that in effect the
individual was a highly productive source of information, and
according to operational reports, he was also an honest employee.
He noted that the file was up to date, but he opted to have it as
complete as possible. It would be preferable to prepare a new
Declaration of Personal History (DPH). The agent took this
occasion to compare the old DPH with the new. The agent
interviewed the employee and prepared the DPH. He began with the
years of youth of the employee and annotated all the corresponding
detains, he took note of the employees military service, including
the period he was prisoner of war of the Soviets, as well as his
record as such. There was nothing derogatory in the new DPH, even
during the interrogatory the e-the employee left the agent
completely satisfied. When the agent returned to his office, he
again reviewed and studied the DPH. This time, the name of the
city Tallin in the Soviet Union drew his attention. In his
statement the employee had stated that he had been a military
personnel prisoner in various prisoner carps. He also said that in
1944 he and others were moved to Tallin. The agent agreed that
Tallin bad a special significance, but he could not remember
exactly what it was. For that reason, he reviewed the archives and
found what he was looking for. According to reliable reports, the
soviets transferred to Tallin only prisoners selected to be trained
in brain washing. Also had been reported that a number of
graduates were recruited by the Soviet Intelligence Service to
serve as clandestine informants.
5) With this information at his disposal, the
counterintelligence agent began his task. Before much time had
elapsed the employee admitted that he was a soviet informant, whose
special mission was to infiltrate the government intelligence
agencies. He also admitted that the information which he had been
supplying had been received through his control agent and that all
was false. One can observe that this type of problems are not easy
to resolve, there is no easy way of determining when an employee
does not tell the truth. We must keep in mind one thing, a trained
double employee does not act as such. He also appears as a
valuable employee, the most disciplined and the most honest.
Therefore, it is necessary to check the whole world - all the
employees under your control, regardless of what contributions they
have made before or what are the positive factors in their favor.
The method and the technique that have to be employed will depend
on the case, the history of the individual and means available.
Everything must be used, but most than anything logic; must be
objective and use common sense. One must not develop
sentimentalism for his employees and must not let be influenced by
beliefs or false illusions. The agent must maintain the control
and security making use of planning, scrutiny and his professional-
ability. Now we shall speak about other types of investigative
actions that we could use in the scrutiny of our employees. In the
first place are the surveillance and coutersurveillance.
When we meet with our employees we must ask the following
a) Has the counterintelligence agent been followed to the
place of the meeting?
b) Has the employee been followed (watched) to the place of
c) Is the place of the meeting under surveillance?
6) In order to obtain answers to these questions and to test our
employee, we must make arrangements to establish the surveillance
and countersurveillance. The surveillance can be established in
two ways: simple, conducted by the CI agent himself or complex
conducted with the assistance of a surveillance team.
7) Other scrutiny methods could include the following: we
suppose that a CI agent wishes to check if his employee keeps files
of supplied information or not. This fact constitutes a serious
operational violation which must be prevented for various reasons:
First, it could be that the employee is selling the information
either to another friendly intelligence agency or to guerrillas.
Second, the employee perhaps maintains his files for the purpose of
pressuring the agent later. Third, perhaps the employee wishes to
maintain his file with no apparent reason. In any case, the CI
agent must make certain that the employee does not keep any files.
A simple way to discover this is the following: The CI agent tells
the employee that on rendering his last report to his superior ( of
the agent) it was necessary to send it without having time to study
it. The he asks the employee for a copy of the previous report in
order to analyze it. If the employee promises and delivers the
requested information in the next appointment, the CI agent must
determine if the report is a word for word copy of the original.
If this is the case, the agent will be reasonably certain that the
employee prepared the report copying it from a copy he kept. There
are various ways of making this test and one could have his own
ideas of doing it.
8) Another method of checking is to assign the employee to areas
already known. Through this method it could be determined if the
employee has entered in the indicated area or not, it could also be
determined if he observes things well and how well is to carry out
orders as well as to absorb training.
Another method that could be used is to assign the employee
fictitious tasks, this way could corroborate his honesty and
loyalty that he may have. This method is excellent for those cases
where the employee is suspected of. having been preparing false
3. MENTAL TEST:
a. There is a number of tests that could provide us an
indication about the stability and psychologic reaction of the
1) TEST THROUGH ALCOHOL.
The ancient romans had a saying " in vino veritras" there is
truth in wine - with that they wanted to say
that a drunk man reveals his true thoughts and his real reactions.
It we observe our employee drinking or in a drunken state, we could
learn much about him.
2) TEST TO PROVE HONESTY:
An excellent way to prove honesty is the following: In paying
the employee pretend to make an error in counting and pay him more.
If ha is honest and realizes that ha has been paid more, he should
state that there is a mistake in the payment, if he remains silent
then it can be deduced that the employee is dishonest.
3) TEST TO PROVE REACTION:
If it is necessary to determine how the employee would react on
being under tension or pressure, one could provoke the situation to
create such conditions. A situation could be created in which the
employee is made to believe that he has lost something valuable.
His reaction would be a clear indication of how he would act under
real conditions. Another type of important reaction test is the
test done to determine if the employee has the aptitude to sustain
his false identity. We already have learned that the employee must
live under an identity. Consequently, use the reaction test to
make certain that in case the employee is interrogated by the
guerrillas or their supporters, he will not reveal unintentionally
his true identity, or also in the event he has to pass through a
control post he is not going to do the same or arise suspicions by
In order to test the attitude and reaction of the employee, one
could simulate such conditions. For example, he could be awaken up
during the night and be asked questions about his identity. In
certain cases it could reach the extreme and simulate an arrest to
see how he will react under adverse conditions.
4. MECHANICAL TEST:
a. I am going to mention some of the mechanical methods to
test, which could be used under certain extenuating circumstances.
Sodiopentathol compound, which is an anesthetic and hypnotic drug,
it could be intravenously injected and would have results of a
"truth serum". In the majority of cases the agent would have to
have a clinic or a hospital at his disposal to make the injection.
In addition, he would have to be aided by health specialists.
Another method that can be used is hypnotism. For the test through
hypnotism you will also need to depend on highly trained personnel.
We must keep in mind that even with the personnel and necessary
means, these methods cannot be used indiscriminately. Such tests
must be done only if the operation specially requires it and if
such process has been approved by a duly authorized headquarters.
5. EMPLOYEE EVALUATION PROCEDURE:
a. The employe Is evaluation is conducted on the basis of the
opinion formulated by the agent about the employee, of the scrutiny
results, and the general evaluation which the agent prepares about
the employee Is performance. The counterintelligence agent at the
level of the activities area does not evaluate the product, that
is, the intelligence information. He only evaluates the
credibility, reliability, honesty, integrity and intelligence of
the employee, as well as the validity of the operation. Through a
careful evaluation and careful analysis of the employee by the
agent, the higher headquarters determines the veracity of the
information submitted by the employee. As it was already explained
during the instruction about contacts, the counterintelligence
agent forms an opinion about the employee, first, by means of a DPH
analysis and second, through personal contact. During the meetings
the agent makes use of the previously mention tests to be able to
form a more concrete opinion about the employee'. He must test all
aspects of the employee's situation, he also must verify the
training condition and his intelligence, since in reality only
through an adequate scrutiny he can evaluate the employee.
In this chapter we have discussed the different types of tests
that the employees could be submitted to and which we make use to
prevent the guerrillas from penetrating our ranks. Said tests
serve also to prevent swindlers and information traffickers to
impose on US.
We must keep in mind that the tests are not more than aids for
the agent. The tests do not replace in any way common sense and
intuitive knowledge, nor have to serve as support, that is to lean
on. Even the best test does not serve anything if the results are
not properly revaluated, said test will not have any validity
either unless it is correctly applied or if it is not the test
corresponding to the case in question. Often a single test is not
enough to achieve satisfactory results. Normally will be necessary
to depend on more than one test as well as with different types of
tests. Most of all, we must remember that employee who passes the
test with negative results will have to be Submitted to other tests
one way or another, so that the counterintelligence agent can
properly formulate his opinion.
We must be concern ourselves of the employee who is efficient and
disciplined and not the one who makes mistakes and does not
produce. If the guerrillas sent us one of their penetration
agents, he will do all that is possible to be very efficient and so
outstanding, in order not to give reason to suspect him. In
certain occasions, when a counterintelligence agent was ordered to
submit his employee to a scrutiny, he responded : "Him?" But he is
my right hand man I have more confidence in him than I have on some
of my work colleagues". A little time later said
counterintelligence agent , had to submit his employee to a test.
What were the results? As you may have guessed, the employee had
been working for the guerrillas for some time.
CHAPTER X: SEPARATION OF EMPLOYEES
Until now, in the sequence of using and obtaining the employee
we have explained the functions of the intelligence agent in
locating, investigating, recruiting and using an employee.
However, there would come a day in which the employee wants to
discontinue his activities. This could happen at any time. The
intelligence agent, on the other hand, could decide to terminate
the employee's services for any number of reasons. In any case,
the intelligence agent must always be prepared to initiate
termination proceedings with very little notice.
A. SEPARATION PLAN:
1. The most effective way through which an intelligence agent
could carry out a quick separation is that the agent keep ready a
separation plan. The separation plan must be planned in the face
of the employee's recruitment. Why is this necessary? It could be
determined, after a careful analysis of the problems that could
emerge related to separation of a potential employee, that it would
be best not to continue with the possible recruitment. The risks,
time and money, plus the possible separation difficulties perhaps
are not worth the trouble for the information or services that you
expect to obtain from the employee. Even if the problems do not
seem to be so great, and it is decided to go ahead with the
recruitment, some of these separation problems require planning and
advance coordination, and must be outlined in detail so that
adequate planning and coordination can be achieved.
2. The initial separation plan could be very brief but, as
the time passes and depending on the employees activity, the plan
could be quite extensive. The format of the separation plan can be
dictated by the government policy or be left to the discretion of
Nevertheless, it must contain the following information:
a. A summary of the case up to preparation date of the
separation plan. This must include information related with the
location, evaluation, recruitment, recruitment circumstances, date
of recruitment and personnel involved in the recruitment.
b. The security-aspects must be recorded with as much detail as
possible. For a detailed explanation, this portion of the
termination must include:
1) All operation techniques used by the intelligence agent that
are known to employee.
2) Operational means known to employee, such as meeting
3) Communication methods known to employee.
4) Data obtaining requirements of the intelligence agent
known to employee.
5) Miscellaneous ( knowledge of personnel, operational,
identity, names, description of personnel, telephone numbers and
The information in this paragraph would probably change from
time to time, for that reason, must be corrected accordingly. The
need to register this information could serve as effective control
of the amount of information the employee possesses. If at any
time seems that he knows more than he should or due to contemplated
operations needed to know more, this in itself could be a
determining factor in his separation.
c. Compromises made:
This portion of the plan must include only the compromises made
with an employee at the time or before the draft of the separation
plan. Must also include any special promise made to an employee at
any time during his employment.
d. Proposed separation actions:
1. In good terms:
a) This portion of the plan must contain information about
the proposed action in the case the employee is separated in "good
terms". The termination of an employee in this condition normally
is achieved easily and without serious security problems. He can
decide to resign or the intelligence agent could have his
employment terminated for many reasons without hostile sentiments
among them. Occasionally, the employees are suspended if their'...
posts are abolished. The intelligence agent recruits employee to
fulfil certain requirements, and when the requirements cease to
exist, then he must separate the employees who occupy these posts.
The employee could also lose his job in the area. He could be
transferred or promoted to a position not related with the are of
interest to the agent.
b) Another reason for the termination could be the wish of
the employee to resign due to personal or family problems. Perhaps
the security procedures have increased in the area, and his fear of
being discovered may have increased to the point that he feels he
has to resign. He perhaps took advantage of an
opportunity to change his regular employment. A change in
ideology, insufficient compensation a desire to move to another
place or a personality conflict with the agent could also cause the
employee to resign. If an adequate solution to the problem is not
possible, it is usually prudent to separate an unhappy employee
since retaining him could constitute a security risk and because
probably ha would not discharge his duties in an acceptable manner.
c) A chronic illness is also a reason to dismiss
terminate) an employee. An employee who is continuously ill will
be of little value for the agent. There is the probability that
his reports may be continuously wrong, and confuse and aggravate
the agent's work. The cover and movement of the employee within
the area will be limited. He will have difficulty in fulfilling
his appointments with his agent an time, or in some cases could not
attend to his meetings at all. Also, the employee could possibly
demand more monetary assistance in order to help defray the medical
d) This type of employee generally does not make demands
or threats. He is converted to an ex-employee who is eligible for
re-employment. Nevertheless, although these persons are separated
under friendly circumstances, they represent a security threat.
Since they may stop being friendly or simply careless, they are
danger for you and your operation, in a way that you must continue
exercising control over them.
2) In bed terms:
a) This portion of the plan must contain information
relative to proposed action that has to be taken in case that is
necessary to separate an employee in " Bad Terms". In this
category are included individuals who, due to their own fault, have
been compromised, apprehended, exposes or that in some way have
disqualified themselves from further employment.
b) The most common reasons for employee dismissal in " Bad
1. Security violations:
The agent must be concerned with the degree of danger that the
employee represents. For example, if the employee is an alcoholic,
a drug addict or a sexual deviate, his dismissal must be
obligatory. The employee could be competent, but if he is under
the influence of alcohol, narcotics or for any other reason
associates-openly with the agent, then he must be dismissed.
This category includes those persons who sell information to
various governmental agencies and fabricators who provide opinions,
false information available to the government
from such sources as newspapers, press releases, publications and
Under this term falls the employee who has been constantly
unstable. The employee who does not produce during a period of
time must also be considered inept. The employee who does not
produce could be because of the agent's poor technique, or as I
mentioned before, could be due to a personality clash between them.
4. Law violators:
In an insurrection situation, the persons involved in illegal
activities are more useful than they would be in a conventional
situation. That is possible because government activities nay
include the coordination with the police agencies so that the
employee is not apprehended. However, an employee who does not
participate in illegal activities when he is recruited and later he
is seen involved in such activities without the knowledge of his
agent must be immediately separated after the revelation of his
5. An employee who has been or is discovered to be
under the influence of the guerrillas or their intelligence system
is eventually separated, after he has been completely exploited.
This type of employee is normally separated in "Bad Terms".
6. An individual who provides information to other
friendly intelligence agencies will also be terminated due to
reason of double effort of the intelligence agencies, and could be
offering the same information to both agencies.
3. PRIOR SEPARATION PLANNING:
a. The agent will always try to initiate separation proceedings,
not the employee. This allows to make the necessary plans that the
situation could demand. This must include the necessary changes in
operations, operation techniques, personnel communications and
operational means, in order to neutralize or eliminate any security
risks that may be possible in preparation of the actual separation.
If this is done properly, the employee will not be able to prevent
the operation even if he expressed hostility towards the
4. CONVENTIONAL SEPARATION TECHNIQUES OF EMPLOYEES:
a. We shall deal with the separation techniques dividing them in
two general types: Conventional techniques and informal separation
Are the most common and preferred. The informal will not be
used unless the employee is hostile, threatening, uncontrollable or
a known security risk.
The normal techniques are merely equivalent to providing an.
indemnization to employee for quitting his job and the employee
signs a separation document. If the agent suspects he could have
difficulty in separating an employee, it will be necessary to
fabricate a reason to convince the employee that the separation is
to his advantage. That could convince the employee that he has
been compromised by the guerrillas. That continuing working for
the government could result in serious consequences for the
employee and his family. If the employee does not believe this
story, other measures could be taken to convince him placing
anonymous telegrams or sending anonymous letters. Many other
techniques could be used which are only limited by the agent's
inaginat ion. Some times an employee who is going to be separated
will have expensive or compromised equipment that was delivered to
him. An attempt must be made to remove this material before
delivering the termination notice. The method by which this can be
achieved without arousing the suspicions of the employee will
depend again on the ingenuity of the agent. If this is not done
discreetly, the employee could appropriate an expensive camera,
invisible ink, etc. As I have mentioned, the separation formally
consists of the notification that the employee's services are no
longer desired, or cannot be used any more, a possible payment in
the form of an indemnization for quitting his job to show that the
actions of the agent are honorable, and the signing of the
separation document by the employee. This separation document in
essence must state that the employee will not voluntarily reveal
any identity he may have assumed, that he has been paid in full for
his services, and that neither he nor his family will make
2. INFORMAL SEPARATION TECHNIQUES:
a. This technique must only be used when it is impossible or
impractical to separate an employee in the conventional manner. An
employee could refuse to be separated unless a reasonable
compensation was met for quitting his job and other unreasonable'.
demands. It could be an employee who, for some reason after a long
period of employment, became dissatisfied and is openly carrying
our acts to destroy the effort of the government. it could be an
employee who has been under the control or influence of the
guerrillas, and would be impractical for security reasons for an
agent to meet with such a person at least one more time. There are
many other cases in which the informal techniques could apply.
In almost all cases where informal separation applies, the
separation will have its own reasons.
b. In the majority of cases, the purpose of the informal
separation technique will be to have the employee " placed on the
black list" by all government agencies, or threatens to expose
himself or admit his activities, or bring about his removal by
means if imprisonment, threat of imprisonment or Voluntary or
forced reestablishment. The methods that have to be used in
informal separations must be carefully planned and approved by
higher authority before being applied. The agent must be certain
that the technique will not place the government in a difficulty.
Threats should not be made unless they can be carried out and the
employee realizes that such threats could be carried out. There
are many disadvantages in the use of threats of physical violence
or true physical abuse.
c. There are many techniques that could be used to force an
employee to accept the separation or to neutralize him to such a
degree that he does not constitute a threat to the intelligence
effort of the government. Some of the suggested techniques are
1) Must use the fact that his pay has been exempt of taxes.
Depending on the urgency of getting rid of the employee, he could
be threatened of being revealed or exposed. Naturally you do not
appear as the accuser of taxes. A more subtle means is by means of
an anonymous tip to tax authorities that the employee has a source
of income that has not been declared. They will investigate the
employee and that will achieve his fall. The agent must not meddle
in this investigation, even though he must coordinate with them.
2) Another method that could be used, if the employee is
receiving illegally goods as compensation, such as foreign
cigarettes, liquor or coffee, the agent informs secretly the custom
authorities just after the employee receives his goods.
3) In inducing the employee to commit an illegal act for
which he could be held responsible could prove effective,
especially if the agent can maintain control of the situation in
such a way that he could use it as a lever to obtain control of the
4) If the insurrection advances to last phases and the
guerrillas dominate certain areas that create borders, there is a
series of things that could be done, especially if the main thing
is to get rid of bin and it is not important if he talks with the
guerrillas or not. Changing his identification is a way that he
could not pass verifications by the guerrilla security elements,
sending him in a specially dangerous mission for which he has been
inadequately prepared, or pass information to guerrilla security
elements are methods that could be used.
3. INVESTIGATION AFTER SEPARATION:
a. The intelligence action almost never ends. The
termination of services of an employee does not mean that the
responsibility of the intelligence unit has ended. Discreet
investigations must continue to assure that the separated employee
is not unintentionally or not doing something considered harmful
for his intelligence activities. An employee could be separated
according to conventional techniques. Much later you discover that
this individual showed hostility towards his government. There is
a particular danger that this could happen with employees when it
seems imminent the triumph of the guerrillas and they want to be at
the side of the winner in order to avoid reprisals if the
guerrillas win and discover that they have been collaborating with
the government forces. When this situation occurs then you would
have to resort to the use of informal techniques to prevent him
from compromising his association as well as the operation. The
important point to remember is that the agent must retain some
element of control on the separated employee.
4. OPERATIONAL CHANGES AFTER SEPARATION:
a. It was previously mentioned during this lecture that the
agent must initiate the separation proceedings in order that the
necessary operational changes could be made to distract the
employee on being separated from current active operations. This
must be done in order to disable the employee in regards to current
operations, personnel and operational installations. In some
cases, as it has been mentioned, it will be the employee who
initiates separation proceedings, and the separation could become
effective at once. When this happens, it will be necessary to make
the needed operational changes after the separation of the
employee. The changes after separation must continue until the
separated employee is considered completely harmless for the
government intelligence forces.
The operational changes must include, but not limited to change
the identity name of the operator and possibly change his location,
change his telephone numbers if necessary, avoid meeting places
that were used with the employee, change the vehicle license
numbers, and if the employee has knowledge of other government
employees, then it must be determined if these employees must be
5. SEPARATION SPECIALIST:
a. In all prior discussions, it was not mentioned who will carry
out the separation process. Perhaps it was tacitly considered that
the employee's agent would do it. In some cases this is
convenient, especially if the separation must be done quickly,
since it would not have any purpose to expose another agent to this
employee. In every case, however, %must consider to refer this
employee to another person for separation. This has some
1) This separation specialist could remove the employee from
the missions, operational techniques and operational means. In the
prior operator tried this, seen a change in the pattern, the
employee could suspect that something bad was going on. While he
expected that a new agent would manage him in a different manner.
2) The separation specialist is a specialist in the
techniques and must do a better job that the agent who has many
other requirements to fulfil.
3) The prior agent is proven as a non-productive source.
4) The division could be achieved by compartments since the
separation specialist could conduct such operation which could not
be traced to any government operation.
6. NEW CONTACT PLANS:
a. It was previously stated that many separated employees must
be considered as re-employable. With such individuals, necessary
arrangements should be made for a possible new contact in a future
date. An address of convenience could be given to employee to
write if he wished to come in contact with you or could be given a
recognition signal that could use another government agent or
another employee in the future.
A separated employee has been frequently re-employed with
effective results, but even if you have no intention of reemploying
him, making a recommendation and informing him that he could be
called, could leave the employee with a feeling of friendship
towards the agent and the government and will make him feel as if
he was appreciated. Never forget that this is very convenient from
the public relations point of view, the reason for separating the
individual is that you do not need him. Assure him that no
arrangement to come in contact with the employee again creates a
situation in which you do not want him. Go away from him on the
most friendly base as possible considering the existing
circumstances and let him leave with a sentiment that the need may
arise to want him.
In brief, we could enumerate what we have discussed about the
separating employees as a series of "POSITIVE" and "NEGATIVE"
a. BEGIN the separation planning of the employee as soon as
possible, preferably before his recruitment. Do not recruit anyone
whose separation problems are so difficult that place in doubt the
value of his services.
b. REVISE and amend a separation plan frequently.
c. REMEMBER that the most important factor in the separation of
an employee is the security aspect.
d. BEGIN the separation proceedings yourself in a way that the
employee would have been completely removed from current operations
before his separation.
e. CONSIDER the sue of a separation specialist when you plan the
separation of an employee.
f. Treat the employee correctly in his separation in a way that
be does not feel any hostility towards the government.
g. FULFIL all the promises made to employee.
h. DO NOT make unusual promises such as re-establishment or
large sums of money without specific approval from the appropriate
i. DO NOT consider the application of an informal separation
technique without consulting first with your superiors.
j. DO NOT make threats unless these can be carried out and make
certain that the employee is aware of this.
k. DO NOT make threats of physical violence or use violence or
l. DO NOT lose control of the employee after his separation.
ATTACHMENT A: CONTROL OF EMPLOYEES
During the study of the last two chapters Until the present time
that you have done of the employees, you could have concluded that
the agents work independently without supervision from their
superiors. That is no so. The procedures to locate, interview,
recruit, test, train, and use and dismiss the employees requires a
large amount of planning and coordination. With the number of
persons involved in such activities, the tactfulness of many
operations and due to security problems that agents and their
employees have to confront, the agents must strictly observe the
necessary administrative requirements. In some cases an agent
thinks that he is excessively restricted by the different
administrative requirements, but it must be understood that the
strict application of such requirements is essential to prevent
duplication of efforts, to increase security of operations and to
assure a general program of more effective and efficient employees.
The agents must accept that it is to their best interests that they
must cooperate completely with the administrators and to send them
quickly and precisely all the requested data, in return they would
receive a quicker response to their requests. The majority of
employee control functions area devised to provide the agent with
support and guidance. A good Employee Control Section could
usually advise the agent in regards to the amount of money that he
must offer to a potential employee, warn him if he is developing a
definite behavioral pattern in the interviews with his employees,
provide him information based on the reports of other agents when
they are applicable to his needs, besides many other services.
In this attachment we will discuses the fundamentals on which a
good control program of employees must be based as well as the
different reports necessary to provide the government with an
efficient program of employees.
A. EMPLOYEE CONTROL PRINCIPLES:
1. Coordination of Employee Recruitment Program.
a. We have talked many times of the large number of persons-
objectives that government employees interview during an
insurrection situation. The government tries to cover almost each
one of the aspects. of its society. This program has as its
objective the continuation of this effort. The new persons-
objectives added to the difficulties that exist to interview
previously designated persons make the maintenance of a continuous
recruitment program imperative in order to carry on a satisfactory
cover. The administrative coordination and control are necessary
to prevent an employee from working for two or more agents without
their knowledge. The danger here in that the government agents of
higher echelons on receiving these reports, not noticing that these
reports were written, prepared, by the same individual, they would
consider then as confirmation reports.
b. It is essential, therefores, that the government establish
by necessity a centralized control system of employees to prevent
that two or more agents interview the sane individual. Such system
must prevent the agents from interviewing any individual without
notifying the headquarters Employee Control Section of their
intentions in order to receive the corresponding authorization.
2. Preparation and Maintenance of Basic History Information
about all current, potential and prior employees. Later on we will
discuss the content of this archives
3. Compilation and Maintenance of Employee History:
This is the most important record of the employee maintained by the
government. We shall discuss the content of the Employee History
at this time.
4. Initiation and maintenance of Administrative Records related
with the recruitment and development of employees:
This includes all correspondence between intelligence agents
and other government echelons related to employee recruitment and
development authorizations. Such requests would start a search in
the upper level archives to determine if the information available
at such levels is favorable or unfavorable with respect to
potential employee or present employee.
5. Maintenance of Employee Evaluation and Production Records:
This generally includes monthly records that carry the title. (
subject) of the report, file number and date. All agent reports
state the information presented to government by the employee. The
Evaluation Record refers to period reliability evaluation of an
employee. The intelligence agent must evaluate periodically the
reliability of his employee and also, at first, the intelligence
reports he presents. I know that I indicated earlier that all
intelligence reports are evaluated by the production section and
that is true. However, remember that the intelligence agent knows
his employee much better than any other person. All other persons
form a concept of this employee only through his written work. No
other government official knows personally this individual =ore
than the agent with whom
establishes contact. Through the personal interviews, the agent
could detect any problem the employee may had in gathering
information or personal problems that may have recently emerged
which could hinder the employee's effectiveness. He knows how
reliable and punctual his employee is, as well as his attitude
towards his work and his character in general. Consequently, the
agent is in a better position to evaluate his employea than the
personnel of the production section that bases its evaluation on
the presented reports only. Now in regards to reports, the
intelligence agent is usually qualified to make an initial
evaluation since he is required to make a person-objective analysis
at the beginning of his operation and must familiarize himself
completely with the person objective. This will allow the agent to
judge properly the true value of a report.
The production section personnel usually has more knowledge
about the activities in general, mainly because it has available
other resources which the agent does not have at his level of
operations. In a way that in the intelligence reports evaluation
the duplication effort is really convenient, especially when the
echelons, the lower and upper, use different perspectives. In
effect, this results in a system of balanced checking.
5. Maintenance of the Person-objective Record File. This allows
the authorities responsible to know the extend of person-objective
coverage. These files serve as guides for the recruitment of more
employees or the elimination of some in order to avoid unnecessary
expense of resources.
6. Maintenance of Comparative Expense Records of an Employee in
relation to number of reports he submits:
a. The maintenance of such records is not so difficult as is
the task of analyzing objectively and thoroughly the results. if an
employee delivers ten (10) reports a month to a prior agent and now
he only submits two (2) reports to his present agent, What would
this situation indicate? The initial reaction usually is that the
employee is not working as hard for the agent that he has at
present than he did for the previous agent. Possibly his new agent
does not interview him as often as his predecessor did. Perhaps
the two reports are always more extensive and are full of valuable
details, while the ten (10) reports submitted before contained a
minimum of information.
b. This type of record is a valuable resource of the general
evaluation authority of the government employees program. However,
there is danger it may become an end to itself. In other words,
this type of record encourages the establishment of arbitrary
standards. For example, the responsible authority could establish
arbitrary . cost/ production standards such as: the employees who
submit 50 reports would receive such a payment;
those who submit from 50 to 100 reports would receive so much, ate.
This way of thinking is not correct and must be avoided.
In all our discussions about employees we have Stressed that
each employee is different, with inherently different problems and
each one must be evaluated individually and not under a system or
arbitrary numbers. The value of these production-cost relationship
records is that they can be used as an efficiency indication of the
employee. When the number of reports in relation to cost is low,
an investigation must be then initiated to determine the cause.
This investigation should include a discussion between the employee
control and the agent of this particular employee. A low number of
reports in relation to cost is very few cases could be the only
cause to get rid of an employee. The quality and other factors
could be more important.
7. EMPLOYEE RECORDS:
a. The use of necessary records in the control of employees will
be discussed in this section. These records must be compiled at
some level by someone if the desired control of employees has to be
used by the government.
b. Once the agent has developed a lead, he must immediately send
the name of this individual to employees control section for
investigation of the name. All information necessary up to that
point is the basis history information. The agent is required to
submit a justification or statement of intention of use of this
individual. The agent must not interview this individual unless he
has received a reply of the name investigation and corresponding
approval to continue with the recruitment process>
c. For the protection of employees a very limited access must be
made in employee records and these records must be maintained in a
restricted area separate from all other government records. Only
those records who have an absolute need to know must have access to
these records. The agents must not know the identities of the
employees of other agents, unless it is for a specific reason. The
insurgents knowing the identity of government employees, not only
they would cause serious barn to government efforts, but also the
life of the employees would be in danger. Another security
practice is to assign the employees a code number which he has to
use in any necessary correspondence pertaining to employee. The
assignment of code numbers must be centralized to prevent that two
employees have the same code number or that an employee may have
two code numbers.
d. Supposing that the agent receives approval to continue with
his recruitment, he continues evaluating the individual until he is
certain that he has all the desired qualities and that he wishes to
be recruited. The agent is then required to present a interview
plan, this must contain information pertinent to:
1) Where the interview will take place.
2) Names of the persons who will be present.
3) When the interview will take place.
4) How the agent will attempt to approach the individual.
5. What assignments wishes the agent to make.
e. If the individual accepts the offer to work than the agent
must obtain all the information he can about the history of the
f. The history information of the employees is usually found in
at least two different records.
1) The employee registration card.
2) Employee history.
g. REGISTRATION CARD: it is used as an instant reference file
about prior and present government employees. Includes information
related with the employee and is used when immediate and concise
information of the same is desired. The size of the card itself
usually is small, it requires that the information is brief. The
information included in this card is normally provided to Employee
Control Section by the agent. The following information must
appear in the card:
1) Personal Data:
Real name, identity name, code number and a photograph.
Must include only prominent aspects of the employee's life.
3) Political and Military History:
Every political position that he may have had, either by
appointment or by election, whether for or in opposition to the
government. His military history shall contain information about
his military service, how long he served, in what service branch he
was, such as infantry, artillery, etc., rank he achieved and under
what circumstances he was discharged from the service.
4) Habits, hobbies and characteristics:
Usually when an agent is selected to deal with a particular
employee, one of the considerations is that the agent must be
compatible with the employee. Some times this compatibility is
established and maintained through a mutual interest of some type,
in a way that the pertinent information to hobbies or
characteristics is very important when the agent has to be
5) Date and circumstances of first contact:
6) Frequency, places and methods of contact to include the
arrangements to meet in emergency cases.
It is not possible to know when the agent or any other person
could have an emergency, so that it is convenient to include this
data in the card.
7) Identity of all other lower employees involved.
8) Covert persons-objectives and relationship of the employee
with the same.
In some cases the employee has direct access to a person-
objective and could have indirect access to others. It is
necessary to know the relationship of the employee with the person-
objective in order to be able to evaluate better the information.
9) Type, amount and method of remuneration (payment): It is
necessary to have this information available in the even an
emergency arises and another person, who is not the regular agent,
may have to talk with the employee.
When we speak of the type of remuneration we refer to money or
material goods, etc. The amount is self-explanatory. The
remuneration method must include the compensation form, that is to
say, if the person receives a regular salary or if on the contrary
this money is kept in an account until the person completes his
services. If he is paid directly, How often is he paid? The
remuneration of employees is very important, especially for those
employees whose only motivation is the money or material profit,
and effort must be made to make certain that all payments are made
10) Employee's current evaluation.
11) Real name of his agent and-substitute.
The use of the substitute agent is a practice which is still
doubtful. Some persons allege that the use of substitutes is of
value because it helps in that the change from one agent to another
takes place without complications. In addition, in emergency
situations, the employee will not have to be interviewed by an
agent that he has never seen. Other persons insist that the
advantages of using a substitute are not sufficient to compensate
the security disadvantages inherent in the use of a substitute.
They allege that more government agents would be exposed if the
employee gets in a jam.
h. EMPLOYEE HISTORY:
Since the Employee Record Card would allow only a brief and
instant identification, the detailed information related to
employee could be found in the Employee History. The History of
the Employee is the employees most important and complete record
maintained by the government. In this record is included all
information available about the employee. This record is used by
the employees Control Section any time it wishes to obtain detailed
information about the employee. It is also of great usefulness in
the orientation of the agent selected to assume control of a group
of employees. The agent could inform himself quickly from the
Employee History above all those who are under his control. It is
not sufficient that the agent review the History one time only, he
must review it occasionally because in some cases information
received from other sources is added.
This record is established by the Employee Control Section
before the recruitment of the employee and must contain the
1) Personal history including fingerprints and a photograph
of the person.
2) History information: This must include the original and
subsequent investigations conducted about the employee.
3) His identity (if applicable): Security precautions taken
by the employee to avoid setbacks. Security precautions which the
agent must take on interviewing the employee.
4) Areas covered by the employee ( and his employees), his
position ( and that of the employees below him) in relation to
person-objective, methods used to obtain information of the person-
objective and abilities of the employee.
5) Identity of ALL employees under the employee and history
of the same.
6) Frequency of meetings, location of the meeting places,"-
and contact methods between the employee and ALL employees under
7) Employee's Production and Evaluation Records.
8) Payment record of the employee and employees under him.
9) All special reports and official correspondence about the
employee and employees under him.
10) A copy of all reports on operational interviews.
i. REPORT ABOUT OPERATIONAL INTERVIEW:
1) This is a detailed summary of all information related to
a meeting between an agent and an employee. This report must be
prepared by the agent after each meeting with the employee. It is
a way to ascertain the use of effective securitv precautions and
the operational techniques. this report must not include any
information about the gathering requirements.
2) This report is usuall y prepared in a narrative form.
Must not use a prepared form in order to avoid a routine pattern
and in order to force the agent to include specific observations.
The following must be included in the report, but not necessarily
in the order indicated:
a) The names or code designations of the persons present
at the meeting.
b) The exact date and time, and the location of the
c) Transportation used by the agent to go and return from
the meeting place. If a government vehicle was used indicate the
vehicle's license number.
d) Must list in detail the security precautions taken by
the agent to and from the meeting location.
e) Must list the payments he made.
f) Must state the source of the information if it was not
g) New assignments given to employee during the meeting to
obtain information must be recorded with the inclusion of the
approximate surveillance dates.
h) Should include the history information related to past,
current and future activities of the employee disclosed at the
meeting. The more knowledge you have about the employee's
activities, the better you will be able to control him and obtain'-
. maximum utilization of him.
i) The last point must include any comments which the
agent believes that may be pertinent in regards to the meeting with
his employee. The type of comment that has to be included in this
paragraph should be a reference to security failure, an indication
that the meeting was under surveillance or an opinion about the
behavior or conduct of the employee during the meeting.
j) The report on Operational Interview is of particular
interest to supervisory personnel responsible of
ascertaining that the security and operational techniques were duly
used by the intelligence agent since the collection requirements
are assigned and satisfied within adequate amount of time. This
report allows the supervisory personnel to follow the course of
operations of the intelligence agents and their employees.
J. PERSON-OBJECTIVE RECORD CARD.
Another record maintained by the Employee Control Section which
does not have direct relationship with the employees, is the
Person-objective Record Card. The Employee Control Section
maintains all person-objective files. This aspect we shall examine
1) Name or code symbol of the person-objective.
2) Precise location of the person-objective, whether it is the
street address and number or square coordinate.
3) The basis for the designation of the personobjective is
usually the objective and most recent date of the person-objective
4) The code symbol of the employee or employees who carry out
the cover of the person-objective.
5) The name of the agent assigned to person-objective.
6) Appraisal of the coverage percentage of the person-objective
10. It is considered that these are the basic records of the
employee which must be compiled and maintained in good order in
order to establish the necessary control of employees in order to
have an effective and efficient program of government employees in
general. These must be considered as the minimum amount of records
that have to be maintained.
11. Although it is the responsibility of the Employee Control
Section to compile these records, the majority of the information
contained in the records is provided by intelligence agents usually
in response to a requirement of the Employee Control Section.
Perhaps it should be emphasized at this point that the Employee
Control Section is responsible for the establishment of
administrative procedures related to employees and necessarily must
impose certain requirements on the intelligence agent. However,
the Employee Control Section will usually not have any operational
control or command authority over the agent.
1. We spoke previously of records related to production and
costs of employees and in another occasion we briefly discussed the
payment or compensation of some kind. Perhaps, this may be a good
time to discuss with some detail the fees of employees.
2. The majority, not all, of the employees who work for the
government would receive remuneration for their services. A danger
is the possibility that the payments made to employees may cause
the employees to be compromised. The decision of the amount which
the employee will receive is usually coordinated in a conference
between the agent and the Employee Control Section.
3. The following factors are considered in determining the
amount of money which an employee is going to receive:
a. Type of employment:
The type of employment or mission of the employee will determine
the amount of compensation that h a will receive. For example, the
introducing employee with usually receive a greater payment that
the employee who routinely collects information of general nature
during his normal activities, because the information collected by
the former is much more difficult to obtain.
b. Economy of the Operations Area:
The economy of a particular area where the agent works would
serve as a guide for the compensation which the employee will
The security of the employee demands that the employee may not
have in his possession more money than he could explain as its
c. Information Quality:
The quality of the information provided by the employee will
affect his payment. It is logical to assume that the person who
provides the most important information-to receive more than the
person who supplies lower quality information.
d. The amount of information must merit a lesser criterion
only in the determination of the employee compensation.
e. Timely presentation of information, risk and effort: These
three factors must receive considerable attention. Often, with
certain type of information, there is only a small amount of time
with which to determine the difference whether this is inte
Iligence or history, and this is particularly important in the
guerrilla environment. obviously, the risk involved and the
employee effort in obtaining the information will influence in the
amount paid to employee.
4. The employs* wages shall be determined by his motivations
and the economic situation in the area. Usually the compensation
in mad& in money of the locality. However, the delivery of the
money to employee involves a security risk especially in-the case
of large so= of money. A large number of agents have given to this
a sound solution withholding a portion of the employees payment and
depositing it in an account until the employee has fulfilled his
obligation. This prevents the employee from being compromised
through indiscreet use of his money.
5. It can be paid to employees in consumer"articles such as
food, cigarettes, coffee, tea, etc. In some cases these articles
are difficult to obtain and possession by the employee of this
articles in large amounts that are scarce in the locality could
6. Payments at regular intervals are common. Usually the
employees are paid monthly. This reduces the administrative effort
and can dedicate more time to activities. Generally, the payment
at regular intervals is more satisfactory to employee.
He knows the amount of money that he will receive and could plan
his budget. However, if an employee is slow and does not present
all the required information because he knows that he will receive
the same monthly payment regardless of what he submits, then his
compensation could be reduced or eliminated. In having performed
in an outstanding manner in a particular case, the employee must be
given a bonus. The bonus must not be given very often since that
way they could lose their psychological value.
7. Payments to employee based on the number of reports submitted
have advantages and disadvantages. in spite of some obvious
disadvantages, some agents prefer this method of payment since it
is thought that this will induce the employee to a greater effort.
In this attachment we have discussed the Employee Control
Section of the government and we have determined that the employee
recruitment coordination, the maintenance of records for all
employees and persons-objectives constitute the principal
function'-... of this section. This section advises the
responsible officials about cover of persons-objectives, use and
deployment of employees and maintains up to date statistics which
show individual the productivity of employees and the percentage of
cover of personobjective.
The majority of employees will receive a compensation in
accordance with their efforts, risks taken, their social conditions
and, of course, according to valuer of the submitted information.
We stress the fact that the deferred payment, or the establishment
of a savings account is often a convenient method of payment for